Paesaggi Interni: governare la fragilità – 31 ottobre 2018

Paesaggi Interni: governare la fragilità – 31 ottobre 2018

Quale modello di governance per le aree interne calabresi? Questo il tema della Tavola Rotonda che si terrà all’Università della Calabria mercoledì 31 ottobre 2018.

Paola Cannavò, membro del comitato scientifico di LabGov, ha organizzato questo momento di riflessione insieme a Donatella Cristiano e Massimo Zupi, che vedrà intervenire anche Chiara Prevete, membro del team ricerca di LabGov.

La Tavola Rotonda affronterà il tema della governance partecipata delle aree interne calabresi, caratterizzate da un’elevata qualità paesaggistica ed ambientale, in buona parte inespressa, misconosciuta e nascosta. Proponendo un approccio in grado di riconoscere il valore del territorio e dei suoi attori, la Tavola Rotonda proverà a reinterpretare il ruolo dell’urbanistica nel guidare il processo di rafforzamento del territorio inteso come “bene comune”, partendo da un’interpretazione di paesaggio come scenario strategico per il Paese e come elemento trainante per la valorizzazione dei contesti dimenticati. Il paesaggio deve infatti acquisire lo status di “bene comune” che gli compete, facendo sì che nei suoi confronti sia possibile avviare la transizione dalla partecipazione con valore prettamente consultivo, alla collaborazione con carattere fortemente gestionale.

Gli attori locali diventano pertanto protagonisti del processo di sviluppo in un modello
virtuoso all’interno del quale le esperienze di successo di un territorio innescano meccanismi
di apprendimento collettivo.

In quest’ottica, verrà proposta la forma del contratto, ovvero di un protocollo giuridico di natura
contrattuale,  che dovrebbe rappresentare il naturale sbocco operativo della pianificazione
paesaggistica in contesti fragili, dove l’azione pubblica deve potersi esprimere come un
primus inter pares, apportando autorevolezza e certezza. Il contratto nelle sue varie forme
(di fiume, di paesaggio, ecc.) individua i temi prioritari, i siti e le criticità da trattare, la
visione e gli impegni che ciascun contraente pubblico e privato intende assumere, le azioni
da attuare e i tempi. Si tratta di un modello partenariale e non coercitivo, che dovrebbe
avere caratteristiche di elevata adattività ai contesti locali e alle capacità delle istituzioni
pubbliche coinvolte e la cui efficacia è favorita dalla co-responsabilizzazione degli attori.

Per ulteriori informazioni sul programma visitare il sito di UniCal.

Rome’s transportation crisis: an overview ahead of the referendum

Rome’s transportation crisis: an overview ahead of the referendum

By Carlo Epifanio and Cosima Malandrino

With almost 3 million inhabitants, the Metropolitan City of Rome holds the first place as far as the use of private transportation is concerned among the biggest cities in Europe. Second only to London in extension in the old continent, Rome expands over 1284 km² with a stunning 50% of modal share for car transportation, suffering from high traffic congestion and pollution. The crisis of public transportation is evident when looking at these numbers. With an inefficient service, a chaotic governance model, and continuous scandals, Rome’s unresolved transportation crisis forged a city of social fragmentation, environmental degrade, and economic stagnation. Today, Rome lags far behind its European counterparts in the implementation of a sustainable urban agenda, where mobility policies play a fundamental role.

To face these systemic inefficiencies, the Radical Party has registered the petition to call for a popular consultative referendum, which will take place on November 11. The two main items to be voted on with a YES or NO are namely whether the public transport in Rome should be organized after a public tender where both private and public actors can participate, and if the city administration should promote competition in providing the service.

Highlighting the social, economic and environmental risks deriving from an outdated, inefficient and unsustainable transportation system, we propose a humble and non-exhaustive interpretation of the Referendum questions, providing the reader with some explications on why to vote against, or for the liberalization. Let us first start with an analysis of the transportation system and the history of its regulation.

 

  1. Fragmentation, Inefficiency, and Governance Crisis: the state of transportation services in Rome, Italy

The questions of governance, political stability, and availability of resources are key factors in the development of a functioning transportation network. When it comes to such factors, the City of Rome has experienced 20 years of bad management, waste of resources, and unstable governance.

The “Agenzia Trasporti Autoferrotranviari Comune Roma” (ATAC), recently declared bankrupt, plays a central role in the public local transportation system of the City as it manages, overlooks and plans the transportation services. During the process of transformation of the transportation services in 2010, the City introduced two new actors: the “Agenzia Roma Servizi per la Mobilità S.r.l.” (Mobility Agency), in charge of managing and planning sustainable mobility services, and “Patrimonio S.r.l” created to manage investment processes. Before such a division, the transportation companies have witnessed many transformations. The year 2000 saw the introduction of two entities, Trambus and Met.Ro, which respectively managed the tram system and the underground system, with Atac acting as an overarching supervising institution. Moreover, for the first time, the peripheral lines were contracted to a private company, Tevere Tpl (now Roma Tpl). However, such an arrangement proved to be nonfunctional and the three entities registered losses. The 2010 reform mentioned above was introduced by center-right Mayor Alemanno who decided to re-incorporate all of the different entities and their respective deficits back into ATAC.

It is during the Alemanno administration that the famous “Parentopoli” scandal comes to the surface. Corruption scandals, mismanagement and continuous changes in the governance model brought about the crisis of Atac and its bankruptcy; we argue that these factors and a constant transformation of the system in term of players, roles, regulations, and relations produced the suboptimal infrastructural investment that led to the inefficient situation we find ourselves in today.

Moreover, this political crisis revealed the financial origins of such a failure: while Atac receives 556 millions of euros of subsidies by the City of Rome every year, it spends an equal amount of money to pay its employees (12 thousand people) and it cashes in only half of this cost from ticket fees. On top of this, Atac is supposed to invest in maintenance and renewal costs. The result is a debt of 1.3 billion euros accumulated in the last 15 years.

Having mentioned the governance and clientelism issues of the public transportation system, the mobility behavior and modal shares of Rome’s inhabitants come as no surprise. The governance crisis has resulted in a malfunctioning and fragmented transportation offer, which in turn produces unsustainable outcomes when it comes to the mobility behaviors of Rome’s citizens. With almost 3 million inhabitants, the Metropolitan City of Rome holds the first place as far as the use of private transportation is concerned among the biggest cities in Europe, with a stunning 50 % of modal share for car transportation, that contributes to the severe problem of congestion. As the picture below shows, the modal shares have only slightly changed between 2009 and 2015. Car and scooters represent the preferred modes of transportation, with 840 vehicles every 1000 inhabitants and around 500 000 motorcycles.

Data from the Mobility Agency of Rome. Comparison between modal shares in 2009, 2012 and 2015:https://romamobilita.it/sites/default/files/studi%20ed%20indagini/status/09_confronti_2009_2012_2015.pdf

The use of private modes of transportation has an evident impact on the environment. Legambiente data show Rome and other Italian cities in the top 5 of European city for the highest number of particles (pm10 and pm2,5) released in the air. The health risks for such transportation behavior are therefore enormous.

Moreover, if time spent commuting is calculated as a cost, Rome’s transportation failures result in important economic hindrances. Indeed, the City of Rome only operates 3 metro lines that poorly cover the great city extension. The resulting public transportation system is mainly made up of bus lines, trams, and regional trains. Rome’s inhabitant’s average commute is 79 minutes long. In Paris, it is 64 minutes long. With high traffic and congestion, bus lines are not a reliable form of transportation. Moovit calculates that people wait 20 minutes on average at bus stops and metro stations in Rome, compared to a wait of 12 minutes in Paris and 13 minutes in London. These statistics all highlight the problematic reality of Rome’s transportation system today. While a reliance on private forms of transportation produces environmental and health risks, the inefficiency of the public transportation network also produces a divided city that fails to benefit from a more integrated and time effective mobility.

  1. How to make public transportation more efficient? What governance model to implement for Rome’s urban mobility?

These questions are at the origin of the consultative referendum scheduled to take place on November 11. On the one hand, the Radical Party – organized in the “Mobilitiamo Roma” committee, gathered the signatures to raise a public referendum pushing for a liberalization of the public transportation system. On the other hand, both Rome’s M5S government and some citizens committees like “Mejo de NO” argue that liberalization should not be seen as the ultimate solution to an infrastructural problem like that of the City of Rome.

Certainly, a crucial element to augment the efficiency of the system is a better coordination between the mobility provider and contractor, that is the city administration. Specifically, the referendum expresses the necessity to govern a company which, being ‘too big to fail’ has been managed irresponsibly in the last two decades relying on public money to refund its enormous debt.

After the company declared bankrupt, the city administration defined a plan to freeze the debt and make Atac reflourish through an economic reentry plan, which according to the current estimates would need at least 20 years to succeed. Should the NO win the referendum, the new plan that poses new measures to contrast fare evasion and new investment at its center would be the main road to follow, mayor Raggi said.

In the past weeks, we interviewed some representatives of the two sides, one from the “Mejo de NO” committee, and one from “Mobilitiamo Roma”. Based on their positions, and on our own background research on the topic, we hereby present and analyze the main points from their two opposing arguments. The two sides are presented firstly, by pointing the way they approach the issue of mobility, then by expressing their proposed solution.

 

How the “Mobilitiamo Roma” frames the issue

Framing the problem:

-Governance inefficiency and lack of monitoring over the service provider created the current situation. Contracts for mobility provision and maintenance exist without being respected in their more essential contractual agreements.

-The public monopoly in Rome does not create conditions and incentives for the service to be rendered efficiently to citizens. The economic losses have been systematically refunded with public money without an actual system of sanctions.

-Being dependent on one entity, Atac, the city has no contractual power to enforce an efficient provision. It is too late, Atac cannot be saved because the debt is too high. Paying off the debt would limit investments in future years.

-Liberalization doesn’t mean privatization. Opening for a call for tenders is required by the law and it allows the system and the actors involved to be more efficient thanks to competition. It is important to overcome the monopoly.

Framing a solution

-Liberalization doesn’t mean privatization, but a new economic approach. It would assign the provision to the market in a competitive framework where the provider offering the best deal would operate. A public actor like ATM or Ferrovie Dello Stato might win the bid in what would become a sort of Public-public Partnership (PUP).

-The referendum would allow a new relationship between contractor and provider: externalizing the management of the service. The city administration would maintain the property, the ability to programme lines and service expansion, and fare tariffs while exercising a role of supervision on the concessionaire. The workers would be reintegrated by the new operator.

-Increase in accountability, separating ownership and management would contribute to a system where incentives and sanctions can be set according to standard provision achievements. This would downsize the risk of a company blackmailing the city administration, a new contractual equilibrium would then be reached.

 

How the “Mejodeno” committee frames the issue

Framing the problem:

-The cause of transport inefficiency has to be found within the infrastructural network. Thus, changing the way service is entrusted does not tackle the roots of the problem. Rome suffers from a lack of infrastructural investment and any service provider, be it public or private, will never be able to set up a satisfactory transportation service without a reform and an upgrade in the infrastructures.

– Today, around 30% of the lines has already been liberalized. The liberalized TPL quota is an evidence of how liberalization does not make the service more efficient and accountable. Workers of TPL have experienced delays in payments and the management of the service continues to be inefficient. Why? Because the problem is the infrastructure, not the service provider.

-The problem relies on a disproportion of surface bus lines and iron lines. The Mobility provision in Rome relies on economy of scale principle, the bigger the network the more efficient until a threshold that has not to be overcome. A network that is too big means diseconomy of scale and economic losses. On the one hand Rome has a disproportionate bus system generating lost and low performances, whereas, on the other hand, the scarcity of Tram and Metro lines doesn’t express the full economic potential performance.

Framing a solution:

-Adapting the infrastructural network to European standard by following the already existing Master Plan, “Piano regolatore per il traffico urbano” (PGTU), through the development of iron lines, what is called “cura del ferro”.

-There is a framing misconception done by the Radical Party, demonizing the public sector and depicting the private option as the most efficient solution for public service delivery. Keeping an in-house management, that is, a concession of the service to a public company owned by the City, the City of Rome can fully control the public transportation system, and thus better invest in the infrastructure.   users and citizens to keep the City accountable. With a private concessionaire, this accountability becomes much weaker.

-In-house management is the model used by most cities in Europe. As such, it shouldn’t be considered as the cause of the failure of Rome’s transportation service, but it should be reformed and improved based on the lessons learned from the years of bad management and lack of investments.

 

Conclusion

This short article presents some of the issues at stake when it comes to the provision of a public service like public transportation. Moreover, it gives an overview of the transportation crisis suffered by the City of Rome in recent years.

Due to the limited space and to limited time, the aim of this article was not to provide a state of the art overview on the issue of transportation governance and regulation, nor to give any best practice or ultimate solution to Rome’s transport crisis. We rather hoped to shine some light on the Roman case and report the positions of the main stakeholders in the referendum of November 11.   

As previously mentioned, a malfunctioning urban mobility network has a negative impact on both the environment and economic prosperity of the City, as well as the health of Rome’s inhabitants. In today’s global metropolises, mass public transportation as well as alternative transportation solutions are fundamental to overcome the congestion and pollution problems caused by private means of transportation like cars and scooters.  

The Roman example shows the ‘tragedy’ of a not respected regulatory framework in the provision of a networked service such as transportation. The interconnectivity of the mobility system within the city functioning has a potential cascade effects and repercussions on the entire society in case of crisis. It becomes then useful to think of urban mobility in a more relational way with the other realms of the city organism. An integrated and multidisciplinary governance approach to urban mobility is essential in order to create a network that connects people, overcomes urban segregation and boosts economic development in all of the Roman neighborhoods.  

It is important to note, that in the case of public utility provision there is no “one size fits all” solution to regulatory and governance schemes. Contextual factors, such as the specificities of people’s commutes, geographical features like Rome’s great extension, and political and economical peculiarities of the city matter. Whether the referendum will express a Yes or No to liberalize the market, the future development of the transportation system has to cope with these contextual factors to become a virtuous example.

 

Sources

Marco Di Giulio, Maria Tullia Galanti. “Varieties of regulation? Implementing the regional governance of local utilities in Italy”, Network Industries Quarterl

“Facts and usage statistics about public transit in Roma e Lazio, Italy”, Moovit https://moovitapp.com/insights/en/Moovit_Insights_Public_Transit_Index_Italy_Roma_e_La zio-

Alberto Fiorillo, Mirko Laurenti, Alessia Albini, Lorenzo Bono, Mario Miglio, Chiara Wolter “Ecosistema Urbano. Rapporto sulle performance ambientali delle città”. Legambiente, 2017

Paolo Canonico, Ernesto De Nito, Gianluigi Mangia, Lorenzo Mercurio, Mario Pezzillo Iacono. “Modelli di governance nei servizi pubblici: il trasporto pubblico locale in Italia”. Impresa Progetto Electronic Journal of Management , n. 1, 2012

“Il Trasporto Pubblico Locale a Roma”. City of Rome , Ragioneria Generale – I Direzione “Sistemi informativi di pianificazione e controllo finanziario” – U.O. Statistica, 2015

“Trasporti, rapporto Moovit: Roma è la capitale con i tempi d’attesa più lunghi” La Repubblica, 2016 http://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2016/12/19/news/trasporti_dati_moovit_roma_e_la_capitale _con_i_tempi_d_attesa_piu_lunghi-154447150/

SUMP Observatory http://www.osservatoriopums.it/roma

http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2017-07-28/atac-ecco-costi-vivi-e-occulti-buco-8-9-m iliardi-dell-agonia-decennale–184300.shtml?uuid=AEhr1a5B

IAIONE, CHRISTIAN “La regolazione del trasporto pubblico locale. Bus e taxi alla fermata delle liberalizzazioni.”pp. XIV-258, Jovene Editore, 2008

 

ICity Lab 2018, Firenze: “Comunicazione e appartenenza. Il racconto di una smart city”

ICity Lab 2018, Firenze: “Comunicazione e appartenenza. Il racconto di una smart city”

Il 17 e 18 ottobre a Palazzo dei Congressi a Firenze si terrà l’evento di FPA sulle smart city
italiane. Tra i numerosi incontri sul percorso verso città più smart, inclusive e vicine ai bisogni
delle persone, l’intervento di Elena De Nictolis che parlerà delle esperienze LabGov.

Con un focus sulle trasformazioni digitali e la governance dell’innovazione digitale urbana,
l’ICityLab 2018 promette un ciclo di dibattiti e incontri appassionanti sul futuro delle città italiane al tempo dell’economia digitale.

Alla settima edizione, il Festival annuale organizzato da FPA, società del gruppo Digital360, sarà ospitato nel Palazzo degli Affari  (Congress and Exhibition Center) di Firenze, città simbolo del percorso verso la trasformazione digitale, che ha investito sulla crescita e sullo sviluppo, concentrandosi sulla politica ambientale e l’innovazione digitale.

“La città intelligente è una città a cui i cittadini sentono di appartenere. E il senso di appartenenza percepito a livello territoriale è frutto non solo della buona riuscita dei progetti innescati dalle amministrazioni, ma anche della buona comunicazione di questi ultimi ai cittadini, innescando processi di fiducia permanente e attivando presupposti per una partecipazione costante alla vita pubblica. Spesso poi, le strategie di comunicazione istituzionale dei progetti avviati sul territorio risultano essere uno strumento di accountability per le amministrazioni, al fine di raccontare come i progetti messi in campo hanno cambiato la città, attraverso i percorsi di comunicazione e di analisi territoriale. Quali sono le metodologie più efficienti in termini di restituzione? Esistono buone pratiche territoriali in tal senso? Quanto investono le città nella comunicazione e nell’analisi di impatto sociale dei progetti?”

Questa la descrizione del panel in cui Elena De Nictolis, Assegnista di Ricerca dell’Università LUISS Guido Carli, presenterà l’esperienza di LabGov – Laboratorio della Governance della città come un bene comune.

Interverranno anche:

Giovanni Carta Portavoce del Sindaco – Comune di Firenze
Michele D’Alena Fondazione Innovazione Urbana Biografia
Sonia Montegiove Responsabile editoriale di Tech Economy e formatrice – Digital transformation Institute Biografia
Alessandro Vittorio Sorani Presidente – Confartigianato Imprese Firenze Biografia
Più informazioni sull’evento qui.
The impact of universities on society: Working on neighborhood commons in San José, Costa Rica

The impact of universities on society: Working on neighborhood commons in San José, Costa Rica

Versión en español a continuación

As part of the LabGov research and extension program for Costa Rica, the Architecture students of the Universidad Latina continue to apply the concepts of common goods to the city, collaborating with the community of the Cedros neighborhood, in San Pedro de Montes de Oca, an area of the capital of Costa Rica, San José.

The process that was carried out in the first months of 2018 began with the realization of an analysis of the community, followed by the setting of objectives and schedule of activities to be carried out as a laboratory and as workshops. The project could be carried out thanks to the help of the community and also of the Scouts group in the area. Starting the investigation, surveys and talks were conducted in order to have more accurate information to project the needs. The best option was to involve the community around the coexistence space that belongs to it and is part of their daily routine: the neighborhood park and the community hall.

As a result of the activities carried out, certain problems were determined in the community, specifically in the sector near the Community Hall and the School of Cedars, which, indeed, as had been observed in the first stage, are the areas most used by the neighbors.

Based on the LabGov methodology, the research group applied the Co-city protocol: knowing, mapping, practicing, prototyping, testing and modeling. In order to achieve a shared city, it was proposed from the beginning to promote in the community the appropriation of public space through specific interventions and achievable with short-term actions that did not come exclusively from the group of researchers, but from the members of the community itself. In this way it was concluded to carry out an intervention with urban furniture, since fundamentally public areas only lend themselves to certain defined uses (field/court sports and indoor congregation activities) and lack comfortable and simple facilities to sit, rest and socialize in the outdoors.

KNOWING

An initial challenge, before starting any project, was to make the community aware of what the common goods are. And how this information could be transmitted in a way that was co-constructed among all.

The commons are resources and networks that sustain life, and although their legal possession may be of a certain group or community, or an individual, they are used by all and of all is the benefit.

Taking into account that every resource becomes common through a process of work and regulation, we wanted to focus on finding and recognizing the Common Goods with the Cedros Community, as well as later introducing a set of new goods to take care of and reproduce: the urban furniture produced with recycled pallets as the main material, which were implemented according to the needs of the community.

The common goods, in addition to achieving citizen participation and creating urban awareness, also help to create an environment of collaboration and equality: as it is related in Peter Linebaugh’s book about “El Manifiesto de la Carta Magna” and the Forest Charter, for a long time, humanity has sought to create a more equitable society, through documents created so that common goods are preserved and protected. Based on these texts it has been shown how this legacy has remained over the years and it is our obligation as citizens to watch over the common goods, since being shared brings benefits for all. Likewise, not only should they be preserved, but improved with the help of a community structure that, in mutual agreement, fosters good communication and teamwork. With this, goods can be renewed over time and could be used by our society and inherited by future generations [1].

On the other hand, as clarified in the book “La Carta de los Comunes”, common goods are not only translated into public space or, in the case of our intervention, in urban furniture, but they go much further, contemplating the goods to which we all have access in our daily life, such as water, air and other natural elements. It is from these fundamental commons that awareness must arise for responsible use. In other words, we cannot limit ourselves to taking care of the benches of our park, if our rivers and seas are full of garbage. For this reason we have sought ways to encourage the recognition of different types of common goods by the young population of the community, involving them in the first person in the care of these goods; so that in a broader way they focus on taking care not only of the community’s assets, but also beyond, an heritage such as water [2].

MAPPING

The decision about the prototype to be proposed was taken after making several field visits and noting that the large green areas had a space dedicated to a small playground and a court. However these are not used due to various problems, among them, the easiest solution was to solve the absence of adequate equipment for living areas. Therefore, it was decided to create functional and modular furniture that could later be replicated by people, remaining as a prototype model that the community could build alone, when it needed more furniture. Trying to create a quiet, cozy and safe space to share with the children, this also required garbage dumps, to have a space free of waste and at the same time educate the recycling.

PRACTICING

Within the activities programmed to achieve this project, the workshop was aimed at young people between the ages of 9 and 16. This got a very positive response from them after working on the book quoted above from the “La Carta de los Comunes” [2]. With this, they were able to understand the importance of greater participation and allowed to spring up in them a sincere interest for the care of our goods.

PROTOTYPING

In the development of this project, a positive response was observed from the members of the community to get involved in decision-making. This was proven in the workshops held, such as the furniture-manufacturing workshop, in which the young people were willing to collaborate and thus they were even more incentivized to preserve these goods, since they were involved in the design process as well as manufacturing, manifesting feelings of appropriation on his part.

This type of activities developed together with the neighbors, generate a tangible impact on the communities, since that attitude arouses the interest of other nearby communities, making it replicate and have an impact at the country level, and at a global level as part of the LabGov program, which aims to be a network of local efforts as the ultimate goal of these actions.

As an added value, in the case of this urban laboratory in the Community of Cedros, it was intended from the beginning to strengthen and promote self-management and not the resolution of a specific problem by external actors. Therefore, the necessary tools were provided for any citizen to be able to repeat or adapt the models proposed in this prototype, through an open technical manual and editable 3D files, accessible to anyone who requires it, within the framework of the Creative Commons concept.

It is very important for urban life to achieve coexistence among its citizens through the use of public spaces that the city offers us. However, the urban space by itself does not work, because it needs to be thought for and by the citizens, used and cared for by them in a continuous and organic way. For this reason, academic interventions are not an achievement but a stimulus to revitalize these spaces as social nodes.

In Costa Rica, despite the renowned democratic culture, people still need to be empowered on the subject of civic rights and duties, and to become active and participatory members of the city’s spaces [3]. This is achieved through the management, methodologies and tools of citizen participation, which give a reason of real use to those spaces. The development of this management was done in coordination between the Creative Campus of the Latina University of Costa Rica, the Cedros Integral Development Association of Montes de Oca and Plataforma de Integración Ciudadana, thanks to the participation of the community and organized groups as the Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica.

The LabGov program of Costa Rica seeks to involve the students of urban design courses in a process of research and extension in order to experience and understand processes of innovation in urban design, not limited to the drawing stage but to processes of co-design management. This not only in order to achieve a broad citizen participation and create an urban awareness of care and maintenance of the urban commons, but also to understand the students as qualitative researchers and community stakeholders, which can – and should – be involved in social projects.

 

1 Linebaugh, P. (2013). El Manifiesto de la Carta Magna, Comunes y libertades para el pueblo. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños.

2 madrilonia.org. (2011). La Carta de los Comunes, Para el cuidado y disfrute de lo que todos es. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños.

3 PNUD. 2013. Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2013, Aprendiendo a vivir juntos: Convivencia y desarrollo humano en Costa Rica. San José, C.R.: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo – PNUD Costa Rica, p. 233-235.

 


 

EL IMPACTO DE LA ACADEMIA EN LA SOCIEDAD: JUGANDO CON LOS BIENES COMUNES BARRIALES

Como parte del programa de investigación y extensión LabGov para Costa Rica, los estudiantes de Arquitectura de la Universidad Latina continúan aplicando los conceptos de bienes comunes a la ciudad, colaborando con la comunidad del barrio Cedros, en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, una área de la capital de Costa Rica, San José.

El proceso que se llevó a cabo en los primeros meses del 2018 comenzó con la realización de un análisis de la comunidad, seguido por el planteamiento de objetivos y cronograma de actividades a llevar a cabo como laboratorio y como talleres. El proyecto pudo realizarse gracias a la ayuda de la comunidad y también del grupo Scouts de la zona. Dando comienzo a la investigación se realizaron encuestas y charlas con el fin de tener información más acertada para proyectar las necesidades. La mejor opción era involucrar a la comunidad alrededor del espacio de convivencia que le pertenece y es parte de su rutina diaria: el parque barrial y el salón comunal.

Como resultado de las actividades realizadas, se determinaron ciertos problemas en la comunidad, específicamente en el sector cercano al Salón Comunal y a la Escuela de Cedros, que, efectivamente como se había observado en la primera etapa, son las zonas más utilizadas por los vecinos.

Basándose en la metodología del LabGov el grupo de investigación aplicó el protocolo Co-ciudad: saber, mapear, practicar, prototipar, probar y modelar. Con el fin de lograr una ciudad compartida, se planteó desde el inicio promover en la comunidad la apropiación del espacio público por medio de intervenciones puntuales y alcanzables con acciones a corto plazo que no vinieran exclusivamente del grupo de investigadores, sino de los miembros de la comunidad misma. De esta manera se concluyó realizar una intervención con mobiliario urbano, ya que fundamentalmente las áreas públicas no se prestan más que a ciertos usos definidos (deportes en cancha y actividades de congregación bajo techo) y carecen de instalaciones comodas y simples para sentarse, estar, descansar y relacionarse en los exteriores.

MAPEAR

La decisión acerca del prototipo que se quería proponer fue tomada luego de realizar varias visitas de campo y notar que las amplias zonas verdes, contaban con un espacio dedicado a un pequeño parque infantil y una cancha, sin embargo no son aprovechados debido a diversos problemas, entre ellos, el de más fácil solución, era resolver la ausencia de un equipo adecuado para zonas de estar. Por lo tanto, se decidió crear un mobiliario funcional y modular que pudiera posteriormente ser replicado por las personas, quedando como un prototipo modelo que la comunidad pudiera construir sola, quando esta necesitara más mobiliario. Tratando de crear un espacio tranquilo, acogedor y seguro para compartir con los niños, se requerían también basureros, para contar con un espacio libre de desechos y que al mismo tiempo educara al reciclaje.

SABER

Un desafío inicial, antes de comenzar cualquier proyecto, era hacer que la comunidad conociera cuáles son los bienes comunes. Y, sobre todo, cómo podría transmitirse esta información de una manera que fuera co-construida entre todos.

Los bienes comunes son recursos y redes que sostienen la vida, y aunque su posesión legal puede ser de un cierto grupo o comunidad, o de un individuo, son utilizados por todos y de todos es el beneficio.

Tomando en cuenta de que todo recurso se convierte en común a través de un proceso de trabajo y reglamentación, se quiso dar enfoque en buscar y reconocer los Bienes Comunes con la Comunidad de Cedros, así como posteriormente introducir un conjunto de nuevos bienes que cuidar y reproducir: el mobiliario urbano producido con pallets reciclados como material principal, los cuales fueron implementados según las necesidades de la comunidad.

Los bienes comunes, además de lograr una participación ciudadana y crear conciencia urbana, también ayudan a crear un ambiente de colaboración e igualdad: como se relata en el libro del Peter Linebaugh acerca de “Manifiesto de la Carta Magna” y la Carta del Bosque, ya hace mucho tiempo la humanidad ha buscado generar una sociedad más equitativa, a través de documentos creados para que los bienes comunes fueran preservados y protegidos. Con base en estos textos se ha mostrado como ese legado ha permanecido a través de los años y es nuestra obligación como ciudadanos velar por los bienes comunes, ya que siendo compartidos traen beneficios para todos. De igual manera no sólo se deben de preservar, sino mejorar con ayuda de una estructura comunitaria que, estando en mutuo acuerdo, fomente una buena comunicación y trabajo en equipo. Con ello los bienes pueden ir renovándose con el tiempo y podrían ser utilizados por nuestra sociedad y heredados por las generaciones futuras (Linebaugh, 2008).

Por otro lado, como se aclara en el libro “La carta de los Comunes”, los bienes comunes no solo se traducen en espacio público o, en el caso de nuestra intervención, en mobiliario urbano, si no que van mucho más allá, contemplando los bienes a los que todos tenemos acceso en nuestra vida cotidiana, como lo son el agua, el aire y demás elementos naturales. Es de estos bienes comunes fundamentales que debe surgir la concientización para su uso responsable. Es decir no podemos limitarnos a cuidar las bancas de nuestro parque, si nuestros ríos y mares están llenos de basura. Por esta razón hemos buscado la manera de incentivar el reconocimiento de diferentes tipos de bienes comunes por parte de la población joven de la comunidad, involucrandoles en primera persona en el cuido de estos bienes; para que de una manera más amplia se enfocaran en cuidar no sólo los bienes de la comunidad, si no más allá, un bien de la humanidad como lo es el agua (Madrilonia.org, 2011).

PRACTICAR

Dentro de las actividades programadas para lograr este proyecto, el taller fue dirigido a jóvenes de edades entre los 9 y los 16 años. Esto obtuvo una respuesta muy positiva por parte de ellos luego de trabajar en el libro citado anteriormente de la “Carta de los Comunes”. Con esto se logró que ellos entendieran la importancia de una mayor participación y permitió que brotara en ellos, un interés sincero por el cuido de nuestros bienes.

PROTOTIPAR

En el desarrollo de este proyecto se observó una respuesta positiva de los miembros de la comunidad para involucrarse en la toma de decisiones. Esto se comprobó en los talleres realizados, como el taller de la fabricación del mobiliario, en el que los jóvenes se mostraron anuentes a colaborar y así se logró aun más incentivar el interés por preservar estos bienes, pues estuvieron involucrados en el proceso tanto de diseño así como el de manufactura, manifestando sentimientos de apropiación de su parte.

Este tipo de actividades desarrolladas en conjunto con los vecinos, generan un impacto tangible en las comunidades, ya que esa actitud suscita interés de otras comunidades cercanas, haciendo que se replique y pueda tener un impacto a nivel de país, y a nivel mundial como parte del programa LabGov, el cual plantea ser una red de esfuerzos locales como el objetivo final de estas acciones.

 Como valor agregado, en el caso de este laboratorio urbano en la Comunidad de Cedros, se pretendió desde el inicio fortalecer y promover la autogestión y no la resolución de un problema puntual por parte de actores externos. Por lo tanto se brindaron las herramientas necesarias para que cualquier ciudadano fuera capaz de repetir o adaptar los modelos propuestos en este prototipo, mediante un manual técnico que fue diseñado para ser “open” y archivos 3D editables, accesibles para toda persona que lo requiera, en el marco del concepto Creative Commons.

Es de suma importancia para la vida urbana lograr la convivencia entre sus ciudadanos mediante el aprovechamiento de los espacios públicos que nos brinda la ciudad. Sin embargo el espacio urbano por sí solo no funciona, pues necesita ser pensado para y por los ciudadanos, usado y cuidado por ellos mismos de forma continua y organica. Por esta razón las intervenciones académicas no son un logro si no un estímulo a revitalizar dichos espacios como nodos sociales.

En Costa Rica, a pesar de la renombrada cultura democrática, las personas todavía se deben empoderar en el tema de derechos y deberes civicos, y lograr ser miembros partícipes y activos de los espacios de la ciudad. Esto se logra mediante la gestión, metodologías y herramientas de participación ciudadana, que den una razón de uso real a dichos espacios. El desarrollo de esta gestión se realizó en coordinación entre el Campus Creativo de la Universidad Latina de Costa Rica, la Asociación de Desarrollo Integral de Cedros de Montes de Oca y la Plataforma de Integración Ciudadana, gracias a la participación de la comunidad y de grupos organizados como los Guías y Scouts de Costa Rica.

El programa LabGov de Costa Rica busca involucrar los estudiantes de los cursos de Diseño Urbano en un proceso de investigación y extensión con el fin de experimentar y entender procesos innovativos de diseño urbano, no limitados al dibujo sino a los procesos de gestión participada del diseño. Esto no sólo con el fin de lograr una amplia participación ciudadana y crear una conciencia urbana de cuido y mantenimiento de los Bienes Comunes Urbanos, sino además entender a los estudiantes como investigadores cualitativos y actores integrantes de la comunidad, los cuales pueden y deben involucrarse en proyectos sociales.

Referencias

Linebaugh, P. (2008). Manifestación de la Carta Magna.

Madrilonia.Org. (2011). Carta de los Comunes.

Le Giornate di Bertinoro per l’Economia Civile 2018 – XVIII edizione

Le Giornate di Bertinoro per l’Economia Civile 2018 – XVIII edizione

“La sfida etica nella IV Rivoluzione Industriale. Economia civile, lavoro e innovazione sociale” : questo il titolo della XVIII edizione de Le Giornate di Bertinoro per l’Economia Civile, che si tiene oggi, venerdì 12 ottobre e domani sul Colle di Bertinoro, nella suggestiva Rocca di Bertinoro, nel cuore della Romagna.

Le due giornate, promosse da AICCON – Associazione Italiana per la promozione della Cultura della Cooperazione e del Nonprofit , vedranno, come ogni anno da ormai 18 anni, incontrarsi sul colle di Bertinoro i protagonisti del mondo accademico, dell’Economia Sociale e del Volontariato e delle istituzioni insieme ad una community di studenti e giovani imprenditori sociali, per riflettere e conversare sui temi dell’Economia Civile.

La sfida etica e l’impatto delle tecnologie convergenti, i significati e la produzione del valore sociale nell’era dell’Intelligenza Artificiale, le piattaforme inclusive e le tecnologie ad impatto sociale, la rigenerazione della democrazia e dell’innovazione sociale nella IV Rivoluzione Industriale saranno i temi al centro delle sessioni di queste due giornate.

Il prof. Christian Iaione, co-fondatore e co-direttore scientifico di LabGov – LAboratorio per la GOVernance della città come un bene comune, sarà presente in qualità di esperto e relatore nel panel “Piattaforme inclusive e tecnologie ad impatto sociale”, per parlare di piattaforme collaborative finalizzate allo sviluppo urbano.

Per maggiori informazioni visitare il sito: http://www.legiornatedibertinoro.it/#