On February 15, 2019, the presentation of the European Commission’s Report on Employment and Social Development in Europe (ESDE) 2018 was held at the INAPP auditorium. The ESDE report is the main report of the European Commission on the latest occupational and social trends in Europe and reflects future challenges as well as possible strategic responses. The world is changing fast and so is the world of work. Technological transformation, global competition forces, and demographic change will continue to affect how people work, consume and live. These mega-trends have made the labour market more dynamic and have brought with them more diverse forms of work and new jobs, requiring new skills. They also have the potential to contribute to increasing inequality and challenge historically rooted institutions. Thus, established labour market regulatory frameworks and solidarity mechanisms may need to be adapted so as to ensure the sustainability of the welfare state and guarantee adequate protection for workers.
Loukas Stemitsiotis, Head of unit “Thematic Analysis”, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, underlines how technological transformation has influenced the way we produce, and asserts that, in order to maintain our “welfare state” we must increase productivity. Robots are becoming cheaper than the workforce, and in Germany, one of the biggest robots user, especially in the automotive sector, this “automation” has clear effects on employment. However, if the use of robots in the production process takes away jobs, it also creates new jobs. The crucial point to focus on is not the work as a whole but the specific “tasks” of each worker.
The most important policy challenge is European education and training policies. A majority of highly skilled workers receives substantially higher wages, suggesting that these workers are in short supply. Investing more and more efficiently in education will address this issue by increasing the supply of high-skilled workers and dampening the rise in the skill premium, which is itself a major component of overall rises in wage inequality. Capital and high-skill labor are complementary: employers buy robots because capital is more efficient than labor, therefore labor get displaced. Then, employers hire new labor, skilled enough to operate and fulfill the new capital’s higher productivity potential.
V. Meliciani, Professor of Applied Economics at LUISS Giudo Carli, focuses on ESDE “shadows”. In particular, she claimed during the conference that “technology implementation goes hand in hand with employment occupation, only as far as services sector is concerned”. After 2008 crisis, the European Union has grown very little from economic point of view. Income differences and digitalization disparities between States still remain perceptible. Nevertheless, discrimination in Europe are lower than in the USA, where the situation seems to be the same of the post first world war. The AdePP President, Alberto Olivetti, explained the problem called “3G”. He said that in our national context there are Gender discrimination (salary differences between professional men and women), Geographical differences (people living in the south earn less than those living in the north) and Generational disparities (under 40 workers earn a third of over 40 ones).
On the other hand, President Olivetti has reaffirmed association commitment to supporting a proactive welfare approach. He suggests working on the “welfare” concept, in a pro-working perspective. In a pro-working view, jobs should be more competitive, qualified and flexible. In his speech, Olivetti said that “a third of children attending primary school will carry out new jobs that we don’t know today. Then, it’s our duty to adapt to the change”. There is a close link between age and technology innovation: old generations show a major difficulty to adapt to the change. However, it is necessary understand that investments are made where there is the ability to adapt.
What is highlighted by all the interlocutors who took part in the conference is that, for the first time, attention is paid to a long-term policy.
In the opinion of the Minister of Education, University and Research, Lorenzo Fioramonti, the challenge is to manage the transitions. Technological change has been considered having a negative impact on the labor market, so we have to adopt a governance capable of preventing problems. Regarding the two points “education” and “skills”, the policy to be followed according to the Vice Minister is based on the concept of the interdisciplinarity. Schools must become the infrastructure where skilled workers of tomorrow are formed.
The President of Assolavoro, Alessandro Ramazza, reminded that although historical events such as the invention of the press or the industrial revolution were seen as a threat to employment like today is the technological transformation, people, with time, understood that these events were only transforming their way of working. The same happens today with the technological transformation that will lead to a change in work and especially in its qualification: we need more highly skilled workers able to govern a new “work phase”.
Miguel Altieri, professor of Agroecology at the University of California, Berkeley presents the challenges, benefits and the strategies that could be adopted to build a long-term Urban agriculture. He also emphasizes the need for more polycultural design, intercropping and rotations of green manures, drawing inspiration from the Cuban model.
The soaring of anti-tour worldwide, of which Porto’s “Worst city tour” is an example, stresses the wish for more authentic types of Tourism, and increased exchanges with local inhabitants to discover their traditions and local habits. Thus, many sociologists argue that it could be a positive alternative to immersive tourism.
In Nairobi, where traffic congestion reaches high levels, people find alternative solutions to commute. Predominantly young males- although women have joined the movement- are now using rollerblades to move from a place to another. And this exciting yet risky activity encourages a sense of community which eases divisions between “local tribes”.
“La France vue d’ici”: Documentary Photography project
This collaborative and participative project led by ImageSingulieres and Mediapart aims to gather photos from different artists who covered diverse parts of the french territory during the year 2017. Part of the project’s objectives is also educating the youngest to media, through workshops organised by photographers.
Last sunday, people from various neighborhoods, schools, clubs and associations gathered together in Piazza Vittorio to protest against the Decreto-legge sicurezza that was approved by the Camera on November the 28th, taking the name of Salvini law and more globally, on all types of discrimination. Both examples of the first article which reduces the residence permit length and the second articles that increases the retention time from 90 to 180 days in centri di permanenza i.e identification and expulsion centres, show that the law system is complexifying the regularizing process for refugees.
The commitment of the Italian city of Cremona in implementing circular economy
After taking the lead in a European project on
waste-management strategy UrbanWins financed by the European Union, the Italian
city of Cremona has achieved significantly positive results in introducing a
A Rally will be held on the 19th of February in Place
de la Republique in Paris. The purpose? If anti-semitism is deeply rooted in
the french society, violence observed a turning point for the last decades. In
particular, a 74% percent rise in anti-semitic incidents was reported over the
Amazon abandons its extensive corporate campus building project
After facing a backlash from local communities, the big corporate Amazon decided to abandon his plan to build its headquarters in Long Island, Queens, NY.
Milano plastic free
Milan is experimenting a plastic free strategy in 200 shops of two of its neighborhoods: Isola and Niguarda, supported by the Italian association Legambiente. This campaign launched by the municipality is preceding the implementation of the 2021 European directive which will forbid any use of objects made of disposable plastic.
Mayors from big cities around the world meet to work on climate justice
A summit gathering worldwide major cities’ mayors was organised on the 20th of February in Paris. It led to the creation of an international platform with legal tools to support mayors in implementing climate justice.
The interest for citizens
co-production of public services is increasing and many digital participatory
platforms (DPPs) have been developed in order to improve participatory
During the Sharing City
Summit in Barcelona last November we discovered the DDDC, i.e. the Digital Democracy and Data Commons, a participatory platform to
deliberate and construct alternative and more democratic forms of data
governance, which will allow citizens to take back control over their personal
data in the digital society and economy.
Barcelona is already known as
a best practice in this field: the city and its metropolitan area constitute an
ecosystem in terms of co-production of public policies and citizen science
initiatives. The City Council has created an Office of
Citizens Science and the Municipal
Data Office, as well as the first Science Biennial that just took place in Barcelona
(from 7th-11th February 2019). At the same time citizen science projects
In this frame Barcelona is famous
to have launched in February 2016 Decidim.Barcelona (we decide), a project of
the City Council to give citizens the opportunity to discuss proposals using an
interface for group-discussions and comments. Decidim is indeed an online participatory-democracy
platform that embodies a completely innovative approach. First of all it is entirely and collaboratively built as free software.
As remembered by Xabier Barandiaran Decidim is
a web environment that using the programming language Ruby on Rails allows
anybody to create and configure a website platform to be used in the form of a
political network for democratic participation. Any organization (local city
council, association, university, NGO, neighbourhood or cooperative) can create
mass processes for strategic planning, participatory budgeting, collaborative
design for regulations, urban spaces and election processes. It also makes
possible the match between traditional in-person democratic meetings
(assemblies, council meetings, etc.) and the digital world (sending meeting
invites, managing registrations, facilitating the publication of minutes, etc.).
Moreover it enables the structuring of government bodies or assemblies
(councils, boards, working groups), the convening of consultations, referendums
or channelling citizen or member initiatives to trigger different decision
making processes. The official definition of Decidim is: a
public-common’s, free and open, digital infrastructure for participatory
Barandiaran remembers also that “Decidim was born in an
institutional environment (that of Barcelona City Council), directly aiming at
improving and enhancing the political and administrative impact of
participatory democracy in the state (municipalities, local governments, etc.).
But it also aims at empowering social processes as a platform for massive
social coordination for collective action independently of public
administrations. Anybody can copy, modify and install Decidim for its own
needs, so Decidim is by no means reduced to public institutions”.
As of march 2018 www.decidim.barcelona
had more than 28,000 registered participants,
1,288,999 page views, 290,520 visitors, 19 participatory processes, 821 public
meetings channeled through the platform and 12,173 proposals, out of which over
8,923 have already become public policies grouped into 5,339 results whose
execution level can be monitored by citizens. […] It comes to fill the gap of
public and common’s platforms, providing an alternative to the way in which
private platforms coordinate social action (mostly with profit-driven, data
extraction and market oriented goals)”.
But Decidim is more than a technological platform, it is a
“technopolitical project” where legal, political, institutional, practical,
social, educational, communicative, economic and epistemic codes merge
together. There are mainly 3 levels: the political (focused
on the democratic model that Decidim promotes and its impact on public policies
and organizations), the technopolitical (focused on how the
platform is designed, the mechanisms it embodies, and the way in which it is
itself democratically designed), and the technical (focused
on the conditions of production, operation and success of the project: the
factory, collaborative mechanisms, licenses, etc.). In this way thousands of
people can organize themselves democratically by making proposals that will be
debated and could translate into binding legislation, attending public
meetings, fostering decision-making discussions, deciding through different
forms of voting and monitoring the implementation of decisions (not only the
procedures but also the outcomes).
pilot project was launched in October 18th 2018 and will end April 1st
2019, for a total of 5 months. It has mainly three goals:
to integrate the DECODE technology with the Decidim
digital platform in order to improve processes of e-petitioning, to
provide more safety, privacy, transparency and data enrichment;
to enable a deliberative space around data law,
governance and economics within the new digital economy and public
policy, in order to provide a vision oriented to promote a greater citizen
control over data and their exploitation in Commons-oriented models;
to experiment with
the construction and use of a data commons generated in the process, in order to
improve the inclusion of the participatory process itself.
The goals will be reached
through several phases that foresee also face-to-face meetings, inside the dddc.decodeproject.eu
platform. The infographic illustrates the phases:
The pilot project is currently
in its second phase. The first 1 was that of
presentation & diagnosis,
dedicated to the elaboration of a brief diagnosis of the state of regulations,
governance models and data economy. The diagnosis emerged from a kick off
pilot presentation workshop, the DECODE Symposium, aimed to imagine possible proposal to move towards a society where
citizens can control what, how and who manages and generates values from the
exploitation of their data; i.e. to imagine how use digital technologies to
facilitate the transition from today’s digital economy of surveillance
capitalism and data extractivism to an alternative political and economic
project. In this phase a sociodemographic
survey was also launched to collect information about the perceptions on the
digital economy and to design communicative actions to improve the
inclusiveness of the process.
The current phase (2) is that
of proposals for a digital
economy based on data commons, lunached considering the current situation of
data extraction and concentration and based on the diagnosis made on the digital
society in the first phase. During the Sharing Cities Summit for example a dedicated meeting took place, divided
into a talk and four group work sessions, one for each axes of the pilot
project (legal, economic, governance and experimental – see below). During this
workshop 64 proposal were collected and in the next phases they will be voted,
discussed and signed. The DDDC staff underlines that the process is
prefigurative since they are trying to create and practice data commons while
deliberating and talking about data commons.
phase the results of the survey on sociodemographic data were also
analyzed with the aim to define, implement and experiment data use strategies
for inclusion in participation (these strategies can potentially be used in future
by platforms such as Decidim). The analysis is made by the Barcelona Now – BCNNOW.
The next phases are:
Phase 3 – Debate:
discussion on the proposals received.
Phase 4 – Elaboration
by the DECODE team and the interested participants
Phase 5 – Signing: collection of support for the
pilot project results using DECODE technology for secure and transparent
signature (based on encryption techniques and distributed ledger
technologies). Crucial phase: this technology, integrated with
DECIDIM, will help in the construction of a more secure, transparent and
distributed networked democracy.
Phase 6 – Evaluation: closing meeting and launch
of a survey to help in the assessment of the satisfaction or participants with
the process and with the DECODE technology
aspects, governance issues and economic topics are the three main axes
followed during the different phases, since they provide a differential
approach to discuss around data. A fourth axis is the experimental one,
dedicated to the use and definition of collective decisions around the database
resulting from the data shared during the pilot project. Il will become a kind
of temporary commons useful to improve the deliberative process itself, a
practice that could be incorporated in future Decidim processes.
At the end of the pilot project a participatory
document, with paper or manifesto around the digital economy will be released.
The importance of this kind of pilot project is
clear if we think to the huge amount of data that everyday every citizens is
able to produce… By now we live in a “datasphere”, an invisible environment of
data, quoting Appadurai, a virtual data landscape rich in
information, cultural and social data. Our data indeed constitute digital
patterns that reveal our behaviors, interests, habits. Some actors, especially
big corporations and States, can act upon this data, can use them to surveil
and influence our lives, through strategies such as ad hoc advertisements or
even intervention in elections (see the case of the Cambridge
or the referendum
on an EU agreement with Ukraine) or generation of citizens rankings (such as
the Chinese case). These
“data misuses” can even influence and affect democracy. Nevertheless, if successful, the
knowledge and insight created by the datasphere may become a powerful managing
and intelligence tool and the debate about the so-called “datacracy” is indeed growing.
In this frame, and considering the little
awareness still surrounding the topic, the DDDC pilot project on the one hand
tries to stir critically consciousness and common construction in this arena,
on the other tries to provide the necessary tools to go in this direction,
improving Decidim and pushing forward the DECODE vision of data sovereignty.
On 21st and 22nd
of February LabGov will participate at the Science for the City roundtable at
the CDMA in Brussels.
The initiative was
presented by Caroline Nevejan, Chief Science Officer of the City of Amsterdam,
Charlina Vitcheva, Deputy Director-General of the Joint Research Centre (JRC)
of the European Commission and Patrick Child, Deputy Director-General of DG Research
and Innovation (RTD) of the European Commission.
The topics that will
be discussed during these two days refer to the main challenges cities are facing
all over the world and the best ways to tackle them: climate change, energy
transition, social cohesion, employment, quality of the air and water, circular
economy, security, reduction of inequalities, and many others.
The solutions to
these challenges will mostly come from cities’ innovative strengths. Many
cities are indeed pioneering in responding to these challenges by designing and
implementing evidence-based policies.
In order to continue
to respond flexibly to developments in society and to find adequate solutions
to many of these challenges a strategic knowledge and research function within
the municipality is essential. In a number of cities, a special function or
position has been created to ensure the connection between science and policy.
In the case of Amsterdam, for example, the strategic position of a Chief
Science Officer (CSO) was created. In other cities similar functions have been
established, although often with a different title.
therefore aims at furthering the collaboration among cities, scientists and
urban experts on these innovative institutional frameworks that allow for the
development of innovative policies.
Over the course of
two days, the event will focus on discussing the existing and developing
challenges faced by cities and the possible scientific responses.
It will also serve to
exchange views on trends and developments in science and knowledge (for
instance the ‘Open Science’ discussion) that are relevant to scientists and
Representing LabGov, Cosima
Malndrino will bring forward the experience of Reggio Emilia, one of the
pioneer cities in Italy and Europe who are reforming the role of urban
authorities in order to foster sustainable and participatory innovation.
Venerdì 15 febbraio
2019 dalle ore 16:00 alle 18:00 presso il LOFT del campus LUISS di viale
Romania, 32, si terrà la giornata di apertura dell’A.A. 2018/19 della Clinica Urbana
EDU@LabGov – LABoratorio per la GOVernance della città come un bene comune”, il
percorso formativo di educazione transdisciplinare e applicata curato dal team
EDU di LabGov e installato presso l’Università LUISS Guido Carli, che si svolge
annualmente a partire dal 2012 nell’ambito delle attività Soft Skills
dell’Ateneo, con studenti provenienti dai Dipartimenti di Giurisprudenza,
Scienze Politiche ed Economia (http://www.luiss.it/studenti/soft-skills-and-training-opportunities/soft-skills-con-cfu/corsi-di-laurea-triennale-e-ma-1 ).
Tanti saranno gli
ospiti e tante le idee in circolazione. L’incontro ospiterà un confronto tra
Giovanni Lo Storto, Direttore Generale della LUISS, Massimiliano Giansanti,
Presidente di Confagricoltura e il “cuoco-contadino” Peppe Zullo, sui temi dell’agricoltura
urbana, dell’alimentazione sana, sostenibile e consapevole, della salute e del
benessere connessi all’alimentazione, del mondo dell’imprenditoria
un momento importante per LabGov perché inaugura pubblicamente la progettualità
comune che vedrà la LUISS, LabGov e Confagricoltura lavorare congiuntamente nei
prossimi mesi. LUISS, LabGov e Confagricoltura stanno infatti definendo un
progetto mirato a diffondere una cultura dell’alimentazione che sia sana,
consapevole e sostenibile, e che avrà la sua base di partenza nell’agricoltura
urbana e la sua fase di start-up nei cinque moduli della Clinica Urbana
EDU@LabGov: il progetto OCULUS “Orti Condivisi Urbani per il Lavoro,
l’Uguaglianza, la Salute”. Questo progetto nasce da una comune intesa e visione
tra LUISS, LabGov e Confagricoltura sul tema dell’alimentazione e
dell’agricoltura. L’agricoltura, fermo restando il prioritario obiettivo di
produrre alimenti, ogni giorno, a prezzi accessibili, garantendo ai consumatori
la sicurezza alimentare in termini di quantità e qualità, contribuisce alla
gestione dei beni comuni e fornisce alla collettività servizi eco sistemici. È
Proprio per tali motivi che LUISS, LabGov e Confagricoltura sono convinti che
occorra aumentare la consapevolezza del ruolo fondamentale che l’agricoltura
svolge nell’interesse comune, anche attraverso la tutela del paesaggio, degli
ecosistemi e della biodiversità, che costituiscono un patrimonio collettivo.
In tale contesto, è
interessante percorrere il sentiero di una fertilizzazione incrociata e/o di
una sinergia tra l’esperienza degli “orti urbani condivisi” e le politiche,
programmi e iniziative sulla salute e il benessere urbano, prestando
particolare attenzione alla nutraceutica. La Nutraceutica è un termine derivato
dalla fusione delle parole “nutrizionale” e “farmaceutica”, che sta a indicare
lo studio di quei principi attivi presenti negli alimenti comuni in grado di
svolgere funzioni protettive per la nostra salute e preventive di patologie
La seconda ora
dell’incontro vedrà intervenire la dottoressa Claudia Giommarini, responsabile
di ERS and student’s development LUISS, da sempre attiva promotrice nell’ateneo
di progetti e iniziative riguardanti la sostenibilità. Verranno infine
consegnati gli attestati agli studenti della clinica urbana EDU@LabGov A.A. 2017/18.