In 2013, at the age of 31, Aja Brown (born Aja Lena Clinkscale) made history when she was elected as the youngest mayor in the history of the City of Compton. She immediately set to work on her ambitious New Vision for Compton revitalization strategy, seeking to paint a new picture of the city that has become notorious for gang violence and crime.
In the late 1980s Compton’s violent reputation reached national audiences when the failed ‘War on Drugs’ met the rise of local gangsta rap. Groups such as Compton’s Most Wanted and N.W.A. which made the city famous with their iconic album Straight Outta Compton. The mainstream media leaned into this identity, and the city became known for the turf war between the Bloods and Crips.
In 1992 when four officers in the Los Angeles Police Department were acquitted after a recording of their use of excessive force in the arrest of Rodney King was widely viewed across the country, riots broke out throughout Los Angeles and Compton. Exacerbated by the memory of the murder of Black ninth-grader Latasha Harlins by Korean shopkeeper Soon Ja Du, the riots disproportionately affected LA’s Koreatown and when they were over 63 people had been killed and over 12,000 had been arrested, while the reputation of Compton was solidified as a place of unrest and violence.
Though crime ebbed and flowed in Compton throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, when Aja Brown took office in 2013 she inherited a city with an infamous reputation, the violence of which was immortalized in albums, books, articles, and movies; as well as a $43 million deficit, an unemployment rate triple the national average, a school district with only a 57% graduation rate, and a spiking murder rate (with 2005 the deadliest year in recorded history).
Focused on 12-key principles centered on quality of life, economic development, and infrastructural growth; Aja Brown’s 2013 New Vision for Compton, was the jumping off point for her mission to rehabilitate her city. Through policy reform and strategic partnerships she has championed several initiatives to reduce crime, eliminate human trafficking, and put a stop to gang violence.
Notably, in 2014, Mayor Brown met with 75 local gang leaders and members to discuss how they could work together to create a more peaceful Compton. This meeting, in tandem with President Obama’s My Brother’s Keeper, led to the launch of Compton Empowered a gang reduction intervention composed of numerous ex-gang members and fixtures of the community. Originally, the group met every other Sunday to coordinate cease-fires, resulting in a decrease in homicides of nearly 50% in the first six months of the programme. Now the group has taken on new life as the Compton city council implemented an official City Gang Intervention & Prevention Program, employing 13 ex-gang members that manage neighborhood peace treaties, create new opportunities for employment, and recruit at-risk youth to participate in healthy extracurricular activities. As a result of Mayor Brown’s holistic gang intervention policy and her community’s hard work, Compton has achieved record low homicides (a 64% reduction) without diverting any additional funding to law enforcement or policing.
Mayor Brown’s community-oriented leadership also extends to growing the economy as evidenced by her First Source Hiring Agreement – mandating 35% local hiring for city funded projects. These efforts have also reduced Compton’s unemployment rate by half – shrinking the 18% rate when she took office in July 2013, down to 9% by December 2015.
Overwhelmingly re-elected to a second four-year term in June, 2017; Aja Brown continues to move forward with plans to elevate and empower her city, launching a $70 million five-year infrastructure program in 2019. Awarded the John F Kennedy New Frontier Award in 2016, Mayor Aja Brown served on the California State Delta Stewardship Council prior to being elected. A champion for youth, women’s rights, and socio-economic equality; she holds a Bachelor’s degree in Public Policy, Urban Planning, and Development as well as a Master’s degree in Urban Planning with a focus on Economic Development. Her partnership with Girls Fly! continues to empower girls and young women by introducing participants to career opportunities in science, technology, arts, math, and engineering.
Read about more influential women in urbanism and architecture at Not Just Jane Jacobs.
City of Compton—Mayor—Aja Brown. (n.d.). http://www.comptoncity.org/officials/mayor/default.asp
Compton, California. (2020). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Compton,_California&oldid=970327602
Getting Compton’s young men to trade gang life for working life. (n.d.). https://money.cnn.com/2016/06/14/news/economy/aja-brown-compton-gangs/index.html
Mayor Aja Brown Reimagines Compton Through Its Empowered Constituents—Essence. (n.d.). https://www.essence.com/essence-policylink/mayor-aja-brown-reimagines-compton-through-its-empowered-constituents/
Metro – Los Angeles. (2017). Mayors roundtable [Photo]. https://www.flickr.com/photos/metrola/33143384333/
These Two Hometown Heroes are Taking Back Compton. (2017, June 28). PushBlack. https://pushblack.org/2017/06/28/these-two-hometown-heroes-are-taking-back-compton-b/
Re-Elect Aja Brown for Mayor of Compton 2017. (n.d.). https://ajabrown.com/
The basic right to food and the access to
alimentary resources has been widely challenged due to the recent COVID-19
pandemic in Italy. I myself have more than one time tried to analyse and
understand the difficult reality of food poverty and the inability or
impossibility to access these resources: it seemed that during the long and
strict lockdown Italy was going through, food was perceived not only as a
necessity that would require a trip into the outside, scary world, but also as
a distraction, a mean to lighten up people’s days while national media was
broadcasting the terrifying reality of a global pandemic. This was the case for
many of us, nevertheless there is a consistent portion of the citizenry that
did not have such easy access to food, and this poses a staggering problem that
exemplifies one of the many faces of urban poverty in modern-day Italy.
At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic stopped
two of Italy’s most prominent and profitable industries: tourism and restaurant
businesses. Most of these activities suffered great economic depression due the
lockdown measures and are looking forward to recover amid the uncertainty of a
post-lockdown future. How can food policy help us respond to these critical
matters? The next few paragraphs will attempt to answer this question by
analysing firstly two best-practices for both the public and private sectors to
attract more and new customers, while the second portion of the article will
deal more in depth with the food poverty crisis that worsened during the
On July 23rd I had the pleasure to
attend Food Policy Milano’s webinar on Italian cities’ food policy and
gastronomy. This has been the third of a total of four events (all recorded and
available here) that aim at the disclosure and
popularisation of food policies across the country. Food Policy Milano operates
inside of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, a collaborative and innovative
initiative signed at Expo 2015 that works to widen and guarantee the right to
food for very citizen, while also designing processes that can tackle food
poverty at the urban level. At the time of writing this article, the Milan
Urban Food Policy Pact had more than 200 signatory cities that comprise over
450 million inhabitants worldwide.
The focus of the webinar was, as I mentioned
earlier, gastronomy and local excellence. The event provides us with two
examples that show possible responses to the emergent need to stand out in both
the public and private sectors, fostering the attraction of tourists, customers
A rather excellent example was brought to us by
the municipality of Alba, a true culinary and cultural gem nestled in the
region of Piedmont in Northern Italy. Alba is world renowned as the birthplace
of the white truffle, perhaps one of the most sought-after haute cuisine
ingredients worldwide, and has been selected by UNESCO as a Creative City for
Gastronomy in 2017. Alba capitalises on such illustrious assets by developing a
solid communication strategy that depicts the values and excellences of Alba in
the fashion of a metaphorical menu: the suggestive setting of the Langhe and
Monferrato vineyards and hills (which are too, needless to say, a UNESCO World
Heritage site), the rich selection of highest-quality local eno-gastronomic
products, the beauty of the city centre architecture and the presence of some
of the most famous and revered restaurants in the region all make the case for
the city of Alba. The case study of Alba is a perfect example of how local,
territorial, excellent and well-communicated food policy practices can create
real cultural, social and economic value.
A second example is that of the East Lombardy initiative, which was successfully
nominated European Region of Gastronomy in 2017. East Lombardy comprises the
four easternmost provinces in the North-Italian region of Lombardy and aims to
be a bridge that connects the produce, the restaurants and the consumers. In
this successful model, restaurants become an asset to bring about value to agriculture.
In the words of Roberto Amaddeo, City Councillor in Bergamo, the keyword of the
project is research: the bond of innovation and tradition. It is
noteworthy to mention that since 2019 Bergamo is too a UNESCO Creative City for
Gastronomy, and that the East Lombardy initiative is yet again a successful
example of food policy practices that work on a strong base of local and
excellent resources to produce valuable outcomes for the primary and tertiary
sectors of the economy.
Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic aftermath
does not simply provide an opportunity for food policy relaunch: it is in fact
of vital importance to bear in mind the disastrous effect this crisis had for
the most fragile citizens of distressed urban areas. The strict lockdown measures
implemented by the Italian government have tragically resulted in thousands of
newly-impoverished and unemployed citizens, while recent forecasts predict a fall for Italian GDP at around -9.5% at
best. Even though the latest Istat report shows positive news for the 2019
level of both absolute and relative poverty, the recent study does only relate
to data from 2019: next year’s post-COVID-19 report will probably confirm the
widespread fear of surging levels of poverty, thus highlighting the need of
both emergency and long-term food policy strategies to tackle poverty and to
ease and guarantee access to alimentary resources.
The region of Piedmont in Northern Italy has
been one of the most hard hit areas by COVID-19, with more than thirty-thousand cases and
over four-thousand deaths. The municipality of Turin, Piedmont’s capital city, has decided to
tackle urban poverty by instituting the distribution of economic relief in the
form of food stamps to struggling families who successfully responded to the
application call. Needless to say, the response has been overwhelming, and the
project “Torino Solidale” has evolved into a larger, more encompassing reality.
As of this summer, the Turin municipality has set up a distribution of food
packs, so to ensure that families have a stable source of nourishment and has
identified several citizen associations as hubs on the urban territory. In the
district of Barriera di Milano, one of Turin’s most impoverished and troubled
neighbourhoods, there are three distribution hubs, among which is the
I have had the honour to meet with and
interview Sister Giuliana Galli and Francesca Vallarino Gancia, founders of
Mamre. Mamre’s expertise lies in the fields of mental health and ethno-psychiatry
in multicultural contexts: it is in these situations that Mamre works on
inclusion and cultural mediation. According to its founders, Mamre focuses on
the dimension of urban peripheries as a support for citizens in fragile
circumstances. Mamre is currently supporting six-hundred families out of the
one-thousand six-hundred families that have requested food packs in Barriera di
Milano. Through personally assisting and helping Mamre’s volunteers during
their job in the past weeks, I have therefore had the chance to witness and
understand more deeply how one of the key elements of emergency urban food
policy come to its final – and perhaps its most important – stage: enactment.
While discussing about food policy and poverty,
Sister Giuliana Galli stressed the importance of physical and face-to-face
connections “We need to make a distinction between institutional poverty
and existential poverty. It is often that we learn about poverty in
studies, articles and the literature: they narrate us everything about it, its
history, its statistics, its technicalities… but we need to take a look at the
qualitative side of research too: people in need show us their necessities in
different ways, and helping them out reveals us what they need”.
Moreover, Sister Galli also discussed the
relevant role of partnerships and collaborative processes: “The availability of
private citizens helps us in the response to the fragile citizenry. The lack of
a food source is the final stage of poverty, a physical, relational poverty,
the ultimate difficulty to utilise the tools and opportunities that have been
rendered available to the public. Partnerships make this connection possible,
and they help us break the cycle of said poverties. These very processes are
the defining mechanisms of true people-oriented politics. Some like to say that
everything we do is political: these circumstances make it so that the single
citizen becomes the principal politician in the urban territorial dimension, it
becomes the lever that can lift and move things around it”.
Finally, Sister Galli addressed one more time
the relevance of food policy measures that can serve the citizenry and at the
same time create a physical presence that can function as a base for urban
processes of poverty relief: “Making our very own spaces available to the
distribution of food packs is a basic yet explanatory practice that shows us
how to get in touch with citizens. It is this community care that
demonstrates one-to-one, on a personal level, that we are there for everybody.
These are our strengths: open doors, the acquisition of personal mutual
In conclusion, we can lastly answer the
questions we posed ourselves at the very beginning of the article: How can food
policy help us respond to the critical conditions dictated by the post-COVID-19
recession? What direction does food policy need to take?
It seems clear that different matters require
different answers. For what concerns the strenuous restart of the private
sector, Italy can count on its world-renown culinary tradition and excellence.
It is not a coincidence that tourism and gastronomy go hand in hand in the Belpaese,
and several best-practice case studies, not only those highlighted in this
article, will demonstrate the wide array of possibilities that private
investors and business owners can take advantage of to relaunch the economy.
The formula that we analysed appears to work like a charm: the valorisation of
local, genuine and excellent products, coupled with a custom-knit storytelling
strategy, generates opportunities and is sustainable on the market.
Finally, the delicate and tragic issue of urban poverty can have its approach broadened to encompass the personal, intimate and humane value that could be disregarded when tackled only from a statistical standpoint. The creation of multi-actor collaborative processes on the small, local and territorial urban level can enable food policy strategists to count not only on the support, but also on the first-hand experience of their territorial partners when it comes to the creation of counter-poverty plans that can finally guarantee the basic right to food and the access to food resources to every citizen.
Source for featured picture: Turin Central Market,