Collaboration among cities as an efficient strategy to face the platform economy.
The 2019 edition of the Smart City Expo World Congress (SCEWC) in Barcelona has just ended (November 19-21); like last year, the exposition hosted a dedicated track about inclusive and sharing cities, exploring five specific themes: future of work and education; bridging the gap, ensuring digital, social and gender inclusion; circular economy; sharing cities with a focus on platform labor in urban spaces; and right to cities in terms of housing, gentrification and urban justice.
In addition, in the Exhibition Area (as happened in the 2018 edition), the topic of sharing cities had a dedicated stand, the Sharing Cities Stand Lab. The stand was organized by the Barcelona City Council and the Dimmons Research Group of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC-IN3). It proposed a special program and an innovative laboratory of three days for policy co-creation, with presentations, debates, hackathons and work session, focusing on key topics such as future of work, inclusion, gender equality, data policies and commons, and sustainability goals.
About future of work: Several sessions took place departing from the Platform Labor in Urban Spaces (PLUS) H2020 project framework, both at the Sharing Cities Stand Lab and in the Congress Area of the SCEWC: the debate was on platform economy’s impact on work, welfare, social protection and the right to the city through a ground-breaking trans-urban approach to promote collaboration among cities.
Inclusive platform and feminist economy: During the Sharing Cities Encounter 2019 several sections reflected on the impact of digital transformation on achieving an egalitarian society; on the feminist digital economics; on the relevance of doing gender impact evaluations and gender-sensitive budgeting to urban sharing practices/initiatives, ecc.. The commitment to equality of this edition has been materialized through the creation of a Code of Conduct and Good practices with gender perspective.
Data commons: Worried by corporate data extractivism, several initiatives against technological determinism are appearing in the public sphere with the aim to foster individual and collective rights towards data uses; i.e. last April, more than 50 experts signed a Manifesto for data sovereignty and commons; during the Encounter several sessions took place surrounding data issues, including a debate on the principles agreed in this Manifesto and a Data Commons Workshop, as well as debates about gender gap in this field.
Climate change and sustainability: The Encounter hosted a panel and a collaboration with Viable Cities, the largest research and innovation initiative taken in Sweden so far in the field of smart and sustainable cities, which aims to help cities in transiting into Climate Neutral Cities through digital innovation and civic engagement.
The stand and the 3 days-event was also the occasion for the sharing cities to meet and reflect together, one year after the launch of the Declaration of Common Principles and Commitments for Sharing Cities during the Sharing City Summit 2018 and the creation of theSharing Cities Action Task Force, which born as joint action of the Barcelona City Council and the UOC. The aim of the Sharing Cities Action was, and still is, to support cities in the implementation of the principles and in moving forward with concrete actions [such as: supporting city sovereignty and data commons; sharing regulatory efforts and empowering cities in front of disruptive platforms; promoting sustainable and inclusive platforms to achieve cities’ and global goals, while preserving rights; incorporating sharing dynamics in urban planning and fostering citizen engagement]. LabGov reported about the Declaration and the Sharing Cities Action in an article that can be found here.
With the Sharing Cities Action Encounter 2019cities renovated their willingness to collaborate and define together an Action Plan for 2020 to make a step forward regarding the challenges and opportunities of digital platforms and sharing potential. The Encounter congregates 30 cities representatives around the world (that met and work also in closed operative meetings) and 150 actors from the international sharing ecosystem of business platforms, civic society, networks, experts, activists and research centers. Representatives from the European Parliament, European Commission and the Committee of Regions and Cities also joined the Encounter. The Sharing Cities Stand Lab, indeed, has been awarded to be part of the European Social Economy Regions Plan 2019 (ESER 2019) by the European Commission General Directive of Grow. The award implied an active involvement of the European Commission in the promotion of the Sharing Cities Encounter itself. Also present was, with a specific panel, the Sharing Cities Sweden project with its representatives from Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö and Umeå.
In the 2018-2019 period the Sharing Cities Action kept alive the communication between cities and the network expanded from 50 to 77 cities, from 36 different countries. It contributed, collecting opinions from the cities, to the Opinion for the European Committee of the Regions and Cities (CoR) on platform economy. The document (launched by a own initiative of the city of Vienna) has been discussed October 22th at the 25th ECON Commission Meeting and the Opinion will be presented for adoption at the Plenary Session of 4-5 December 2019. Key insights of this initiative and the CoR positioning have been presented in the Sharing Cities Encounter 2019 by Klemens Himpele, Head of Department for Economic Affairs, Labour and Statistics, of Vienna City Administration.
The year saw also action researches to empower cities: departing from the Summit 2018, Sharing Cities Action developed the report: An Overview of Public Policies of the Sharing Economy by Cities. The report presents an analysis of cities conceptions and approaches regarding sharing economy definition, its challenges and opportunities, criteria used to differentiate platforms and cities’ main goals and policy interventions. It also focuses on governance structure, participatory methodologies, collaborations among cities, connections between different stakeholders and cities administrations, and pays special attention to gender and inclusive policy interventions. Lastly, it develops an analysis on cities’ typology regarding their reactions towards Sharing Economy.
Another research implemented and presented during the Encounter has been the study on Data Strategies for Cities to facilitate Negotiation with Platforms. The study results from the collaboration with Murray Cox from Inside Airbnb (Open Data Platform with data scraped from Airbnb). This collaboration is framed within the goal of promoting common actions between cities to defend the sovereignty of cities in front of large platforms. The goal of the study is the systematization of knowledge about negotiation with platforms to inform possible actions and strategies that cities may develop in each responsible department. Murray Cox presented key insights of this study during the Encounter.
Lastly, Sharing Cities Action has been cooperating and supporting with the European Cities Network on Short Term Holiday Rental, a network of 19 European cities and regions working together on the challenges of the short-term rental platforms. It aims at reorienting the growth on touristic activities mediated by platforms towards sustainable growth. In other words, it pursues to foster the social and economic sustainability of the housing market, as well as, to ensure and improve the quality of life in both cities and regions. Key insights of the European cities network on short term holiday rental have been presented in the Smart City Expo World Congress and in the Sharing Cities Encounter 2019 by Albert Eefting, Senior Policy Advisor on housing affairs City of Amsterdam and coordinator of the European cities network on short term holiday rental.
In addition, during the Encounter has been announced that Seoul will take the testimony of Barcelona (Summit 2018), New York (Summit 2017) and Amsterdam (Summit 2016) to support the program of collaboration between cities and organize the Sharing Cities Summit 2020.
While waiting for the next year’s summit, we wish to the sharing cities involved and, to those new cities that are willing to come on board, a year of researches, strict and productive collaborations, and collective actions!
Seoul, indeed, under the Park’s mandate, focused on social innovation and sharing economy with the goal to favour a paradigm shift, a transition towards an innovation-led Sharing City. A city that can really be a place of freedom and conviviality of diverse and different individuals. Social innovation is considered a tool to realize this transition and transform urban space in an a more equal, free and fair space that allow citizens to own the city together and become the subject of conviviality. “It transforms the life of self-development for competition and consumption into a life of friendship and hospitality for freedom, dignity, and symbiosis, and enables us to imagine and create a more free and dignified life-cycle”.
Today the Seoul Metropolitan Government in its
goal to build “the City for All” proposes to take the results of the Sharing
City Seoul project, launched in 2012, and go further, transforming the city in
“a distributed and resilient” urban system in which expand democracy in its
participative version. That means develop Seoul into a “City as a Commons”.
This crucial transition will proceed on three trajectories that will allow to
create and enjoy the commonwealth and the common rule that is “urban commons”:
The Economic transition for sustainable circulation of resources for production and consumption
The Ecological transition that pursues inclusive growth with the recovery of the social-disadvantaged
The Social transition that makes social value accepted as core principles of social operation.
To deepen the reflection about this transition, the Forum gathered many experts that framed the Commons universe. The plenary morning session, saw the involvement of LabGov, that intervened with a presentation of professor Christian Iaione. He talked of the meaning of making a civil regulation on commons for the future of the “Sharing Seoul” and for the city’s new task, presenting the Co-city methodological approach and the co-governance project run by LabGov, bringing insights also from the Bologna Regulation on collaboration between citizens and the city for the care and regeneration of urban commons“ (here to explore the Co-City protocol and here to download the Co-Cities full open book).
On the main stage also Michel Bauwens that introduce a model of poly-governance for
the creation of a partner city based on meta-regulation. “The poly-governance mechanisms and institutions discovered by Elinor
Ostrom (1990) as the hallmark of the management of commons resources becomes
the new normal in institutional design. Poly-governance structures, possibly
matched by appropriate property mechanisms, consists at least of the three
levels (commons, state and market) but can be even more fine-grained, as the
work of Foster &
Iaione (2016) has suggested” ( see here for more information).
The following open discussion with Iaione and Bauwens involved Mayor’s Park, professor Ezio Manzini (Politecnico) and professor Lee Kwang-Suk (Seoul National Universty of Science and Technology) focusing on the meaning of transitioning from a sharing city to a commoning city and the importance to prevent neoliberal capitalism from coopting commons.
The inspiring morning was followed by four sessions in the afternoon:
commons and co-creation: how to build the commoning platforms in Cities?
commons and democracy: who owns the urban nature? Urban commons against
as Urban Commons for resilient community and
Every session saw the participation of many experts, practitioners, scholars, from USA as Neal Gorenflo – executive director and co-founder of Shareable, from Europe as Mayo Fuster – director of Dimmons Research Group at Open University of Catalunia, and several presenters from South Korea, coming from various sectors, in order to deepen both economical, ecological and social aspects around the topic of the commons.
The Forum gathered also a C.I.T.I.E.S delegation with representatives from Montreal
and Barcelona. The Case of Barcelona with its sharing ecosystem, the experience
around the topic of commons, and the birth
of the Sharing Cities Action, was also presented on the stage by Mayo
Fuster during the first afternoon session as best practice in the field.
The day closed with
the message from the Forum Director, professor Seoung-won Lee (Seoul National
University) and from the Head of the Social Innovation Division inside the
Seoul Metropolitan Government. They both stressed the relevance of this crucial
paradigm shift, the importance to incorporate and let thrive the commons to
really build a city for all and the relevance of connecting experiences among
of Utrecht has indeed held the meeting in June 28 and 29, thanks to the organization of Martijn Arets
(Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development), Rense Corten (Dept. of
Sociology), Joyce Delnoij (Dept. of Sociology) and Koen Frenken (Copernicus
Institute of Sustainable Development).
As every year, the International Workshop represents an important venue to bring together academics and other stakeholders to discuss the latest insights on the sharing economy and to see the advancement on researches of many colleagues.
This edition started with an opening
public event at the TivoliVredenburg on June 27. The public event “Towards an Inclusive
Platform Economy: the Future of Work” moderated by Martijn Arets, hosted a
speech of Peter Baek, head of the British innovation think tank NESTA. He challenges researchers to spend
less time analysing downsides of platforms, especially Uber and Airbnb, in
order to focus instead on the opportunities to solve global challenges coming
from the platforms and alternative financing models. He presented some Nesta UK’s
activities, such as the ShareLab project that aims to grow evidence
and understanding of how collaborative digital platforms can deliver social
impact. He also talked of crowdfunding community investment and of matched crowdfunding as a way of getting ideas
and projects off the ground, combining crowdfunding and institutional funding.
The second speaker of the public event
was José van Dijck, professor in media and
digital society at Utrecht University and co-author of the book ‘The Platform Society’. She prefers to talk of platform societies instead of sharing economy, arguing that we need to
move away from market and consider more societies’ needs. In her speech she
explained how platforms have entered the space of U.S. primary schools
“disrupting” the public education system. Stressing the importance of putting “public values first”
she underlined that new technologies are reducing the privacy of children (that
cannot speak for themselves and are not protected enough by the GDPR) as well
as the autonomy of pupils and teachers. Platforms indeed promise personalized
learning and more efficiency in schools, but there is no evidence on this, and
investment in technology means less money to hire teachers.
The second part of the public event
hosted practitioners and stakeholders presenting stories from practice. Sara Green Broderson introduced the Danish
reputation platform Deemly which helps platform
workers to transfer their reputation from one platform to another, preventing
dependence on a single platform; she defined Deemly as “a platform of
platforms” since it puts individual users back in control of ratings and
Nils Ahlsten from the Swedish Public
Employment Service, presented the ongoing experimentation of JobTech, that through an open source infrastructure, API’s and open data for
the creations of different job market applications, helps matching employers
and job seekers, transforming online reputation into offline resume.
Last but not least, Ronald van den Hoff introduced his company, Seats2meet.com, that with over 150 locations worldwide has become an interactive breeding ground for entrepreneurship, inspiration, innovation, cross-linking and cross-pollination. Ronald is also author of the book Society 3.0 and founder of the Society 3.0 Foundation.
public open event laid the foundations to start a rich and intense 2-days
International workshop. June 28 at the University Hall, professor of Strategic
Management at the Warwick Business School, Pinar Ozcan, kicked off officially the
2019 edition. With her speech “Intricacies of doing research on sharing
platforms: Theory, methodology, and pitfalls”, she highlighted some of her
findings on market entry strategies, growth challenges, and the role of local
institutions and trade associations in the process. In particular she compared
the entry strategies of Uber and Airbnb in UK, Netherland and Egypt, since by
now we know how platforms enter the market and grow but less is known about how
they move across institutional environments. In her findings she drew special
attention to the transformative approach
adopted by Uber (rushing to gain scale) versus the additive approach adopted by Airbnb (more cooperative with
institutions). In her opinion, over time additive strategies may not be enough,
but they get “a foot in the door”: once they are in, they work with regulators
to address societal challenges.
keynote speaker of the second day, June 29, was instead Timm Teubner, professor of Trust in Digital Services in the Faculty of Economics and
Management at TU Berlin. In his speech “Platforms,
trust, and what may come” he discussed “platformization” that is impacting our
individual behaviour and our understanding of public and private sphere as well
of the electronic landscape in general. He also showed the economics of
peer-to-peer markets and the influence of pricing.
two inspiring morning lectures started two intense days of presentations
divided in five parallel sessions that covered different topics: reputation,
urban sharing, business model, legal issues, cooperation, mobility,
institutions, trust, environmental impact, human resource management, coops,
participation, individual behaviour, social impact and policy. The variety, as
usual, was high and the level of researches as well. The presentations covered
indeed a lot of research fields and specific topic, analysing and deepening the
worker issues, the evolution of carsharing, the legal aspects of the sharing
economy, the effect of seller reputation on a peer-to-peer marketplace, the
evolution of the food delivery platforms, cities case studies, and so on. A
complete list of presentation can be found here, while the abstracts here. The edition has seen the participation of
people from 23 countries, for a total of 75 presentations. It should be
signaled that a #crowdfunding campaign was also used by a participant from
#Brazil in order to afford her participation at the workshop and present her
research on governance in sharing platforms.
The adding value of this international workshop is the multidisciplinary that it offers. Indeed it brings together scholars with a common interest on sharing economy/platform economy but with different backgrounds and approaches, making the venue rich in inputs and insights, and valuable for everyone in terms of exchanging ideas and views, discussing hypothesis and research questions, brainstorming with colleagues, networking for future partnerships
two days of great, intensive and fruitful discussions about the sharing
economy, the closing session, in the general excitement, revealed the next year
location that will be Barcelona, hosted by the Open University of Catalunya.
So, see you all there for updating about our researches. And stay tuned.
The FSFE is a non-profit, non-governmental organization that works to create general understanding of and support for Free Software (FS) and opens standards in politics, business, law and society. It supports individuals and organizations in understanding how FS contributes to freedom, transparency and self-determination and, from a legal point of view, it collects and shares knowledge about legal and licensing aspects.
Software is deeply involved in all aspects of our lives and the Foundation stresses the importance to make sure that this technology empowers rather than restricts us. Free Software is a matter of liberty (not price); it gives everybody four rights :
1. use, since the FS can be used for any purpose and is free of restrictions such as licence expiry or geographic limitations;
2. study, since its code can be studied by anyone, without non-disclosure agreements or similar restrictions;
3. share, since it can be shared, redistributed and copied at no virtual cost;
4. improve, since it can be modified by anyone, and these improvements can be shared publicly.
So, these rights help support other fundamental freedoms like freedom of speech, press and privacy.
Looking to public administrations, it should be stressed that they are important users and providers of software. They procure, fund and support the development of products and services that can affect large groups of people. However, when these endeavours do not involve Free Software, critical questions concerning security, efficiency, distribution of power, and transparency arise. Indeed, in order to establish trustworthy systems, public bodies must ensure they have full control over the software and computer systems at the core of their state digital infrastructure. But right now, this is rarely the case due to restrictive software licenses that:
Forbid sharing and exchanging publicly funded codes, preventing cooperation between public administrations and hindering further development.
Support monopolies by hindering competition, with the result that many administrations become dependent on a handful of companies.
Pose a threat to the security of our digital infrastructure by forbidding access to the source code and creating fixing backdoors and security holes.
On the contrary the kind of software that fosters the sharing of good ideas and solutions, that guarantees freedom of choice, access, and competition, that allows IT services improvement, that helps public administrations regain full control of their critical digital infrastructure, and thus supporting them in becoming independent, is more and more necessary. The two experts of the FSFE stressed therefore the importance to rely on Free and Open Source Software in public administrations instead of proprietary software.
In this way, it is possible to see and inspect the code, learn from it and reuse. Thus, costs are minimized, since investment can be concentrated on human resources instead of capabilities; in addition, processes become transparent and shareable (still reducing costs).
The FS also guarantees technological sovereignty: it is possible to choose local entrepreneurs who respect users’ rights and freedoms, change providers if necessary and retain control of data; this means that it is possible to have tailored software that suits people’s needs and not just the vendor’s business model; at the same time the monopoly and the oligarchic dependence to big technological vendors is broken.
In addition, FS allows to work with communities. Indeed, it uses the talent of FS developers, represents and gives voice to users and developers, and, in that respect, local SMEs can become strong partners.
From a legal point of view, it allows to connect legal experts and companies, it represents a safe place to discuss issues and to find solutions to overcome problems.
From a political point of view, it favors the collaboration among cities working on joint projects, building networks.
Regionality, autonomy and efficiency are therefore three crucial key words.
But above all, publishing source code is a way to give taxpayers’ money back to society. For this reason, the FSFE has launched the campaign: Public Money, Public Code. Public bodies are financed through taxes and they must make sure they spend funds in the most efficient way possible. Under the claim “if it is public money, it should be public code as well”, the Foundation pushes for legislation requiring that publicly financed software developed for the public sector be made publicly available, under a Free and Open Source Software license. The campaign revolves around an open letter advocating that publicly funded software should be free. Currently, this call to public agencies is supported by more than 21499 people and 161 organizations that have already signed the letter.
The venue of the event is not by chance: FS has become a core element of the Barcelona’s smart city and digitalization agenda, under the nudging action of Francesca Bria, the Commissioner of Technology and Digital Innovation at the City Council. Barcelona has a bigger City plan that aims to use technology and data to provide better, more affordable services to citizens, making government more transparent, participative and effective. As one can read on the City Council website “Strike a New Deal on Data to expand socially beneficial uses of data, while guaranteeing data sovereignty, ethics & privacy. Provide access to Internet for all. High-speed internet connectivity is not a luxury but a right for all citizens; it’s an absolute necessity for economic development and social mobility in the 21st century economy”. The city is working on several fronts:
Technology for a better government through an ambitious plan for digital transformation that includes strategic projects to counter social problems, detected as government priorities.
Urban technology to guarantee that the city has digital infrastructures it requires for its overall management and to ensure the provision of uniformed public cover for all city residents’ needs in terms of housing, unemployment, social exclusion, health, energy and mobility.
City data commons: data are a prime asset in the knowledge society and should be perceived as a common asset; the city promotes this view in order to achieve the democratic, open, transparent and regulated management of this resource.
Among all the different projects the city is running, DECIDIM has to be mentioned, since it is the biggest FS program of the city. It is a digital platform for the democratic participation that allows citizens to debate, attend meetings and create proposals. The platform’s source code is publicly available, enabling other cities to use it and adapt it (similar to the CONSUL of Madrid). This is not the place to detail the project, but it should be said that government is investing public money in FS so citizens can control the software, and platforms can remain in the public domain, managed and governed by the community. Barcelona has also been the first city to sign the campaign launched by the FSFE Public Money, Public Code. By date, it is running a migration plan with a pilot project on processing workstations into a completely free operating system. But the whole information infrastructure is moving towards open standards, open stocks and interoperability. Basically, Barcelona is migrating its computer system away from the windows platform; the strategy is first to replace all user’s applications with open-source alternatives, until the underlying Windows operating system is the only proprietary software remaining; in a final step, the operating system will be replaced with Linux.
We are moving in the frame of the “digital democracy” and “digital sovereignty”. That means taking back control of data and information generated by digital technologies, and promoting public digital infrastructures based on free and open source software, open standards and open formats. So, in order to regain sovereignty and guarantee citizen digital rights, public-common democratic infrastructures are required.
Today a growing number of public institutions started a transition to free-software solutions. This does not only grant independence but can address the often argued need for public access to publicly-funded developments. In addition, the experts highlighted that this is the only way that public services can ensure that citizen data is handled in a trustworthy manner since non-free software wouldn’t allow total control (or even knowledge) over the employed functions of the needed programs.
The migration process nevertheless is very complex and can also fail. See what happen in Munich for example: the German city indeed was famous for rejecting Microsoft in favor of using Linux on its PCs, but in 2017, after more than a decade of running Linux-based PCs, it has decided to switch about 29,000 PCs to Windows 10. A study of IT at the council by consultants Accenture and ARF said that it took the council too long to update software and fix bugs, resulting in “obsolete, partially unsafe, usually extremely cumbersome IT, leading to lots of wasted time and productivity”, but blamed a lack of coordination between the more than 20 IT departments serving the city, rather than the use of open-source software. The two experts of FSFE suggest to do the migration step by step. What is really important is not the duration of the process but the commitment of the administration.
What is important to highlight is that we are facing not only great technological change, but overall a cultural and a structural organizational change, and a change in the way public services are designed and delivered. For this reason, the digital revolution should be connected to a democratic revolution.
That means rethinking the relation between government and citizens to ensure that citizens take back democratic control and take an active part in the city life. Technology should be rethought and used from the angle of the Commons.
The point is that, in a democratic city, technology should serve to: digitally empower citizens, protect their privacy from abuses by public and private powers, fight against corruption and to advance towards a more equitable and sustainable economy. That means favoring the creation of technological models that are ethical, responsible and civil, and conquering technological digital sovereignty for common goods.
The interest for citizens
co-production of public services is increasing and many digital participatory
platforms (DPPs) have been developed in order to improve participatory
During the Sharing City
Summit in Barcelona last November we discovered the DDDC, i.e. the Digital Democracy and Data Commons, a participatory platform to
deliberate and construct alternative and more democratic forms of data
governance, which will allow citizens to take back control over their personal
data in the digital society and economy.
Barcelona is already known as
a best practice in this field: the city and its metropolitan area constitute an
ecosystem in terms of co-production of public policies and citizen science
initiatives. The City Council has created an Office of
Citizens Science and the Municipal
Data Office, as well as the first Science Biennial that just took place in Barcelona
(from 7th-11th February 2019). At the same time citizen science projects
In this frame Barcelona is famous
to have launched in February 2016 Decidim.Barcelona (we decide), a project of
the City Council to give citizens the opportunity to discuss proposals using an
interface for group-discussions and comments. Decidim is indeed an online participatory-democracy
platform that embodies a completely innovative approach. First of all it is entirely and collaboratively built as free software.
As remembered by Xabier Barandiaran Decidim is
a web environment that using the programming language Ruby on Rails allows
anybody to create and configure a website platform to be used in the form of a
political network for democratic participation. Any organization (local city
council, association, university, NGO, neighbourhood or cooperative) can create
mass processes for strategic planning, participatory budgeting, collaborative
design for regulations, urban spaces and election processes. It also makes
possible the match between traditional in-person democratic meetings
(assemblies, council meetings, etc.) and the digital world (sending meeting
invites, managing registrations, facilitating the publication of minutes, etc.).
Moreover it enables the structuring of government bodies or assemblies
(councils, boards, working groups), the convening of consultations, referendums
or channelling citizen or member initiatives to trigger different decision
making processes. The official definition of Decidim is: a
public-common’s, free and open, digital infrastructure for participatory
Barandiaran remembers also that “Decidim was born in an
institutional environment (that of Barcelona City Council), directly aiming at
improving and enhancing the political and administrative impact of
participatory democracy in the state (municipalities, local governments, etc.).
But it also aims at empowering social processes as a platform for massive
social coordination for collective action independently of public
administrations. Anybody can copy, modify and install Decidim for its own
needs, so Decidim is by no means reduced to public institutions”.
As of march 2018 www.decidim.barcelona
had more than 28,000 registered participants,
1,288,999 page views, 290,520 visitors, 19 participatory processes, 821 public
meetings channeled through the platform and 12,173 proposals, out of which over
8,923 have already become public policies grouped into 5,339 results whose
execution level can be monitored by citizens. […] It comes to fill the gap of
public and common’s platforms, providing an alternative to the way in which
private platforms coordinate social action (mostly with profit-driven, data
extraction and market oriented goals)”.
But Decidim is more than a technological platform, it is a
“technopolitical project” where legal, political, institutional, practical,
social, educational, communicative, economic and epistemic codes merge
together. There are mainly 3 levels: the political (focused
on the democratic model that Decidim promotes and its impact on public policies
and organizations), the technopolitical (focused on how the
platform is designed, the mechanisms it embodies, and the way in which it is
itself democratically designed), and the technical (focused
on the conditions of production, operation and success of the project: the
factory, collaborative mechanisms, licenses, etc.). In this way thousands of
people can organize themselves democratically by making proposals that will be
debated and could translate into binding legislation, attending public
meetings, fostering decision-making discussions, deciding through different
forms of voting and monitoring the implementation of decisions (not only the
procedures but also the outcomes).
pilot project was launched in October 18th 2018 and will end April 1st
2019, for a total of 5 months. It has mainly three goals:
to integrate the DECODE technology with the Decidim
digital platform in order to improve processes of e-petitioning, to
provide more safety, privacy, transparency and data enrichment;
to enable a deliberative space around data law,
governance and economics within the new digital economy and public
policy, in order to provide a vision oriented to promote a greater citizen
control over data and their exploitation in Commons-oriented models;
to experiment with
the construction and use of a data commons generated in the process, in order to
improve the inclusion of the participatory process itself.
The goals will be reached
through several phases that foresee also face-to-face meetings, inside the dddc.decodeproject.eu
platform. The infographic illustrates the phases:
The pilot project is currently
in its second phase. The first 1 was that of
presentation & diagnosis,
dedicated to the elaboration of a brief diagnosis of the state of regulations,
governance models and data economy. The diagnosis emerged from a kick off
pilot presentation workshop, the DECODE Symposium, aimed to imagine possible proposal to move towards a society where
citizens can control what, how and who manages and generates values from the
exploitation of their data; i.e. to imagine how use digital technologies to
facilitate the transition from today’s digital economy of surveillance
capitalism and data extractivism to an alternative political and economic
project. In this phase a sociodemographic
survey was also launched to collect information about the perceptions on the
digital economy and to design communicative actions to improve the
inclusiveness of the process.
The current phase (2) is that
of proposals for a digital
economy based on data commons, lunached considering the current situation of
data extraction and concentration and based on the diagnosis made on the digital
society in the first phase. During the Sharing Cities Summit for example a dedicated meeting took place, divided
into a talk and four group work sessions, one for each axes of the pilot
project (legal, economic, governance and experimental – see below). During this
workshop 64 proposal were collected and in the next phases they will be voted,
discussed and signed. The DDDC staff underlines that the process is
prefigurative since they are trying to create and practice data commons while
deliberating and talking about data commons.
phase the results of the survey on sociodemographic data were also
analyzed with the aim to define, implement and experiment data use strategies
for inclusion in participation (these strategies can potentially be used in future
by platforms such as Decidim). The analysis is made by the Barcelona Now – BCNNOW.
The next phases are:
Phase 3 – Debate:
discussion on the proposals received.
Phase 4 – Elaboration
by the DECODE team and the interested participants
Phase 5 – Signing: collection of support for the
pilot project results using DECODE technology for secure and transparent
signature (based on encryption techniques and distributed ledger
technologies). Crucial phase: this technology, integrated with
DECIDIM, will help in the construction of a more secure, transparent and
distributed networked democracy.
Phase 6 – Evaluation: closing meeting and launch
of a survey to help in the assessment of the satisfaction or participants with
the process and with the DECODE technology
aspects, governance issues and economic topics are the three main axes
followed during the different phases, since they provide a differential
approach to discuss around data. A fourth axis is the experimental one,
dedicated to the use and definition of collective decisions around the database
resulting from the data shared during the pilot project. Il will become a kind
of temporary commons useful to improve the deliberative process itself, a
practice that could be incorporated in future Decidim processes.
At the end of the pilot project a participatory
document, with paper or manifesto around the digital economy will be released.
The importance of this kind of pilot project is
clear if we think to the huge amount of data that everyday every citizens is
able to produce… By now we live in a “datasphere”, an invisible environment of
data, quoting Appadurai, a virtual data landscape rich in
information, cultural and social data. Our data indeed constitute digital
patterns that reveal our behaviors, interests, habits. Some actors, especially
big corporations and States, can act upon this data, can use them to surveil
and influence our lives, through strategies such as ad hoc advertisements or
even intervention in elections (see the case of the Cambridge
or the referendum
on an EU agreement with Ukraine) or generation of citizens rankings (such as
the Chinese case). These
“data misuses” can even influence and affect democracy. Nevertheless, if successful, the
knowledge and insight created by the datasphere may become a powerful managing
and intelligence tool and the debate about the so-called “datacracy” is indeed growing.
In this frame, and considering the little
awareness still surrounding the topic, the DDDC pilot project on the one hand
tries to stir critically consciousness and common construction in this arena,
on the other tries to provide the necessary tools to go in this direction,
improving Decidim and pushing forward the DECODE vision of data sovereignty.