Transnational meeting of the URBACT III Transfer Network “Civic eState” (Good Practice City: Naples)

Civic eState – Pooling the urban commons as civic patrimony

20th – 21st September 2018
Ex Asilo Filangieri, Naples, Italy


The Civic eState network is one of 25 “Tranfer Networks” approved by URBACT in April 2018. Civic eState is the Urbact transfer network whose purpose is to transfer through adaptation a Good Practice realized by the City of Naples.

The Civic eState network is centered on the policy challenge of co-designing and co-producing with City inhabitants legal and sustainability tools for urban commons governance. The urban commons are tangible and intangible assets, services, infrastructures that are considered by the City of Naples as of collective belonging that are taken away to the “exclusive use” proprietary logic and characterized by a shared and participatory administration, as well as collective ownership. The revitalization of the urban historical heritage represents a cultural, economic and social challenge, but also a spur for the city to re-elaborate its identity creating a new bond with the citizenship and private/entrepreneurial sector.

Civic eState partners
City of Naples, Lead Partner (Italy)
City of Barcelona (Spain)
City of Gdansk (Poland)
City of Ghent (Belgium)
City of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
City of Prešov (Slovakia)

• 20th September 2018: Internal meeting

12:00 Reception: Arrival of participants, registration

12:30 Light lunch at the venue

Welcome speech
Luigi de Magistris, Mayor of Naples
Carmine Piscopo, Councillor of Urban Planning, City of Naples
l’asilo, community

Presenting the URBACT programme
Kristijan Radojčić, URBACT Secretariat networking officer

Introduction to the Civic eState network: pooling the urban commons as civic patrimony
Nicola Masella, City of Naples project coordinator
Christian Iaione, Lead expert
Setting up a common understanding of our network’s objectives for Phase 2

Pecha-Kucha presentations
Showcasing Civic eState partners’ challenges and strategies for the transfer process
Partner share the main features of the policy challenge addressed by Civic eState in their city

16:15 Coffee break

Emerging urban commons legal statement

17:00 Site Visit

19.30 Dinner

21st September 2018

8:30 Reception: Arrival of participants, registration

URBACT III Transfer Networks
Kristijan Radojčić, URBACT Secretariat networking officer
Phase 2 Transfer Journey
Q&A Session

Submitting Phase 2 project proposal: what’s required from our side?
Christian Iaione, Lead expert
Nicola Masella, City of Naples project coordinator
Defining Phase 2 Activities, kick-off meeting proposal, Q&A

11:00 Coffee Break

Transfer potential assessment: wrap-up
Christian Iaione, Lead expert
Exploring assets and barriers related to transfer

13:00 Lunch

Learning from communities: social and cultural activities
Naples’ communities experts

Transfer and site Visit @exOPG Je so’ pazzo

19.30 Farewell dinner

#CiviceState #urbancommons #URBACT #URBACTIT

‘Tropicalizing’ the urban commons: the challenges of public space negotiation in São Paulo

‘Tropicalizing’ the urban commons: the challenges of public space negotiation in São Paulo

by Alix de Parades

Living in a city means sharing a limited amount of space with a great variety of people. With more and more individuals choosing this way of life, urbanization and density have caused a change in the way that we perceive space – as a resource, a shared good that should be both enjoyed and preserved.  And this resource is, in cities, a limited and nonrenewable asset. Facing rampant urbanization and increased occupation of vacant areas, metropolises are struggling to maintain this resource accessible, both in quality and in quantity. The demand for space is indeed quantitative, for practical reasons: one needs a certain amount of space to live, to circulate, to work or for leisure. But the demand is also of qualitative nature: city dwellers request and deserve by right quality urban spaces, that are safe, lively, sustainable and healthy (Jacobs, 1961, Gehl, 2010). To provide for these two aspects with the limited amount of space left in cities, urban dwellers have found a solution in the commoning: sharing the resource for optimizing their needs (Foster & Iaione, 2016).
The need for quality public spaces is being increasingly recognized by scholars and local governments, as well as by global cooperation agencies. The New Urban Agenda, defined by the conference Habitat III held in Quito in 2016, stresses the importance of public space as a vital element of urban life (UN-Habitat, 2017). The World Bank also acknowledges: “Cities must recognize the role that quality public spaces can play in meeting the challenges of our rapidly urbanizing world.” (World Bank, 2015). However, in developing countries like Brazil, South Africa or Mexico, little is still done by municipal governments to provide for this need, and public spaces are too often spaces of conflicts.

Brazil, in which I conducted my research, is amongst the most urbanized countries of the world: with over 85% of its population living in cities, the country faces huge issues of sprawl and density (World Bank, 2017). Density affects the quality of the commons, as conflicts emerge over the use of space: the real estate market interests, the quantitative demand for public spaces, or large scale public-private partnerships for redevelopment projects, advocate for antagonistic forms of development (Goodall, 1972). Different groups of users pry into the public space to use it for a wide variety of competing purposes, from parking to  drug trafficking for instance. Rivalries emerge, that are detrimental to the quality and accessibility of the space. In São Paulo, 12 million inhabitants are sharing little over five thousand public spaces, that is, in average, one public space is shared between 2,400 persons (IBGE, 2017). Skewed concentration of the capital in the central areas leads to underinvestment in peripheral spaces, that are then either left abandoned and used as landfills, or appropriated by residents of local communities for their own use. In the central areas as well, decades of car-oriented and transit-oriented development, added to the contemporary lack of investments and absence of political will to counter detrimental appropriators, contributed to the deterioration and low quality of many urban spaces. Instruments are being developed by the municipality to provide for quality public spaces accessible for all, that basically consists in privatization of the space: delegating the management to a private entity. Among these privatization mechanisms, the programs Adopt a Square (Adote uma Praça) and Parklets offer to private investors the management and care of a public space in the city, under the condition that it would remain accessible for all. Privatization mechanisms are nonetheless risky, in the sense that private entities should have incentives to effectively contribute to the quality of the space, and should be monitored in order to be sure that they do not exclude some users from using the space.

Studying the public nature of spaces implies addressing the ‘commons’ from a legal point of view: as a property dilemma subjected to regulations and conflicts. The commons are indeed spaces or resources challenged by claims over legitimate uses of space, commonly known as the land use issues (Blomley, 2008). The property claim is at the center of the concept of commons since from property comes rights of use, and the right to exclude or limit access to certain groups of wanna-be users (Ostrom, 2003). Public ownership, ownership by the local community or private ownership are three forms among others to claim the right to use a space for specific purposes, and to consequently be able exclude whoever is not wanted in a space.

This idea presents a challenge to the negotiation for the commons: in cities in which practices of privatization of the space are a raising concern, how can the negotiation for the commons manage to preserve the public nature of such spaces?

Fig. 1: Diversity of uses and public in the Vila Itororó Canteiro Aberto: a homeless man (in yellow) plays tennis table with neighborhood children. In the back, a theater company rehearses and someone plays the piano.

Two successful examples in São Paulo: quality public space through participatory governance and self-organization.

São Paulo is a testing ground for a third way of governing space, that recenters the negotiation on the qualitative aspect of  public space.

Bottom-up city-making practices, either formal (systematized), such as the initiative The Batata Square Needs You (A Batata Precisa de Você); or informal, such as occupations, temporary interventions or “tactical urbanism”, are increasingly being used as a way for citizens to reclaim their right to the city and to contribute actively in the making of space. In addition to these small-scale local responses, new models of participation for private entities also gain strength and reach in São Paulo. PPPs start to include civil society through PCPs (public-civic partnerships) or PPPPs (public-private-people partnerships), and civil society organizations increasingly turn to private capital and social entrepreneurs to partner or finance their projects.

This approach is systematized by the framework of the commons, as stated in 2014 by the Bologna Regulation on civic collaboration for the urban commons, the first regulation defining the commons as collective goods whose responsibility for care and improvement is shared between citizens and the public administration.  Urban commons are then defined as quality public spaces, shared between a variety of actors, in which practices of city-making contribute to transform and improve the space and the way it is perceived (Bologna Regulation, 2014). This framework allows to experiment governance models that go beyond the public-private dichotomy, and to analyze a third way of doing politics, that includes the civil society. How to preserve the quality of urban public spaces when negotiating the commons between a diversity of entities with distinct interests? The initiatives I analyzed in São Paulo have proven to be rather successful, as they manage to improve the quality of the space while maintaining it accessible to everyone.

The research I conducted provides an analysis of the practices of negotiation for uses and transformation of quality urban spaces in two cases in São Paulo: the Vila Itororó Canteiro Aberto, located in the central area of the city, and the Espaço Cultural Jardim Damasceno, in the periphery (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Localization of the two cases in São Paulo’s municipality. Blue: Vila Itororó Canteiro Aberto; Red: Espaço Cultural Jardim Damasceno

The Vila Itororó Canteiro Aberto is a project that started with the beginning of the restoration of the Vila Itororó, a 1920s mansion and the surrounding buildings forming an enclosure of 38 housing units, a vila (it could be considered as a precursor for modern gated communities). Initially inhabited by wealthy families, the Vila progressively deteriorated and from the 1970s, the housing units were occupied illegally by modest families, turning the complex into a slum (cortiço). In 2006, the municipality declared the area of public interest and started expropriating the families (Feldman & Castro, 2017). After a lot of resistance and negotiations with the authorities, accompanied by civil society organizations’ and media’s attention, the families were evicted and relocated to social housing centers. Some of the former residents organized themselves into the Riacho Collective (Coletivo Riacho), that actively participates to schedule the programmes of the Vila nowadays.

Fig. 3: the mansion Vila Itororó

In 2013, the space was handed over to the Secretary of Culture, that launched a partnership with the Institute Pedra, an non-profit organization, to turn the Vila into a cultural center (Vila Itororó, 2017). Together with the housing complex space, an adjacent warehouse was jointed to the project: the Canteiro Aberto (Site Open), serving as a vitrine for the future of the Vila. This warehouse is being used as a temporary cultural center that promotes participatory processes for defining the future meaning of the space. The programmation is decided in partnership with the Riacho Collective and neighborhood associations, and includes a wide variety of activities such as debates, circus, woodwork or culinary workshops, self-defense classes, dance and capoeira, free psychoanalysis sessions, visits of the mansion.. However, the contract linking the Institute Pedra to the warehouse was not renovated in 2018 and the management mandate was transferred back to the Secretary of Culture. The place was maintained as such, but the activities were not officially maintained. It is only thanks to the participants’ initiative that some activities still took place after the end of Institute Pedra’s mandate. The current management is willing to give continuity to the activities and is now negotiating with all of the involved stakeholders to resume the uses. The series of discontinuities in the management of the area are detrimental for the space itself and highlight the downsizes of depending on political will when it comes to the qualification of public spaces.



Fig. 4 & 5: Mixity of use in the Vila Itororo Canteiro Aberto: on the right, self-defense group, circus rehearsal, psychoanalysis clinic (in the back) and a man asked to leave for the self-defense workshop, and on the left, a woodwork workshop.

The Espaço Cultural Jardim Damasceno, located in the Northern part of São Paulo , is an informal occupation of a public space belonging to the Parque Linear do Canivete (Canivete Linear Park). It is managed exclusively by the community, and offers community and cultural activities for residents of the neighborhood, such as dance, street art, capoeira, environmental education or cinema (Site Associaçao Jd Damasceno, 2014). The shelter in the space was built at the beginning of the 1980s, thanks to the mobilization of self-organized residents who demanded from the municipal and state government basic improvements for the region, like sanitation, lighting, and asphalt. This shelter ended being used by the residents’ association, to centralize a variety of activities that were proposed in the streets or in some houses of the neighborhood. The hangar is built on a municipal land and was built without authorization from the municipality, creating a controversial status and a debate over legitimacy. The space suffers from its status quo situation: not a part of the Linear Park, legally not an autonomous space as well, it faces huge difficulties to conduct reforms and is constantly threatened by the successive management authorities. However, the residents who manage the space are trying to prove the legitimacy and the utility of the project to the municipal government, by insisting on the public interest of the space for the community.

The participatory processes that are taking place in these two cases are just two examples of how space can be negotiated between public and private entities. They adopted a different model: while the Vila Itororó embraced shared management as a principle, the Espaço Cultural Jardim Damasceno works under the model of occupation and self-organization. In spite of the threats that weight over both spaces, the two processes of negotiation manage to produce a quality public space and positive individual and community outcomes, as both spaces attend the necessities of the surrounding community and engage effectively with their public.



Fig. 6 & 7: Community activities at the Espaço Cultural Jardim Damasceno.


Shared management practices as successful tools for improving the quality of urban space

The two cases succeed in answering a real demand from the neighborhood: both are the only functional public spaces in a densely urbanized area, with a lot of young people and families. They have to attend this population as well as people living in more precarious conditions (ex-residents of the Vila Itororó, homeless people…). The variety of users in the territory is a challenge for both spaces, that is overcome through participation, civil society constant involvement and effective partnerships. In both cases, partnerships with different groups and collectives offer numerous activities, that manage to bring people of all groups to participate. Participation is used as a tool to bring people into the place, to involve a variety of users and to engage people in relation to space.

However, in both cases, the continuity of activities is threatened by political will. The governance scheme presents persistent fragility and precariousness and complex relationships with the municipal organs add up to conflicts over land use and competition between users for space. The spaces have to face management issues at the municipal scale and at the local scale, as well as within their interaction.

Resources are a way of overcoming these threats. The legal framework is used as a tool to solve the political discontinuity: the recent Law of Participatory Management of Squares (2015) or the Social Function of Property are legal instruments that could help guarantee the continuity of both spaces. Persistent financial fragility is an issue, but resources could be found by diversifying sources of revenue and involving social entrepreneurs. Eventually, media or international attention could bring support to the spaces, by putting the issue of space on the agenda and pressuring policy-makers into creating more effective regulations.

Conclusion – practicing citizenship, practicing democracy

In São Paulo, shared management practices are hence a successful way of preserving and improving the quality of urban spaces. The model of urban commons, a singularity for public space management, challenges the traditional public-private dichotomy by showing how shared management of public goods can lead to the production of quality public spaces.

Enhancing public use and ownership feeling, such practices contribute to recenter the focus of the negotiation over space management on its quality. Quality as an outcome is what gives legitimacy to the management scheme, and a strong argument for the continuity of the projects. These new models of negotiation are indeed exposed to governance challenges, but if long-term public authorities’ commitment is an important modality, it is not as essential as community engagement and civil society participation. The existence of functioning and sustainable public spaces outside the “private vs. public” realm should be preserved, upscaled and institutionalized in effective regulations such as the Law of Participatory Management of Squares (2015), in order for them not to remain isolated initiatives. Connecting the commons could eventually allow them to reach a wider impact, intending to guarantee the right to the city for every urban dweller.

Such practices also have a strong political potential, as they set the ground for community mobilization and engagement. By valorizing community engagement and local culture, and by promoting democratic practices of participation, the commons of São Paulo contribute to tackling not only the lack of public spaces in the city by also the demand for more democracy. In an election year, while Brazil faces a tensed political context, it is more than ever vital for citizens to have spaces of debate and of expression in which they can discuss ideas or experiment solutions freely. Society becomes more democratic when urban spaces are more lively and diverse (Rogers, 2017): preserving the vibrant activity of such spaces, in spite of management discontinuities and resources fragility is hence particularly relevant in São Paulo. In Latin America as a whole, the negotiation for public space and urban planning practices have a determinant role to play during “extraordinary” moments, such as presidential elections or political manifestations. Understanding the means of appropriation, and “what space means and to whom” is a canal to understand how planners and municipalities could contribute to improving democracy at a wider scale (Irazábal, 2008).

All pictures by the author, 2018.


This article is an adapted and summarized version of my Master’s Professional Dissertation: De Parades, A., (2018). Negotiating the urban commons in São Paulo: Between private practices and public use, finding the balance for preserving quality urban spaces, Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris – École Urbaine , 2018. English, pp. 73.

Blomley,  N., (2008). Enclosure, Common Right and the Property of the Poor, 17 Sociology & Legal Studies. 311, 315-26.

Feldman, S. and Castro, A., (2017). Vila Itororó: uma história em três atos = Vila Itororó: a three-act story. São Paulo, Instituto Pedra.

Foster, S. R., Iaione, C., (2016), The City as a Commons, 34 Yale Law & Policy Review 281

Gehl, J., (2010), Cities For People, Burnaby, B.C.: University of Simon Fraser Library.

Goodall, B., (1972). The Economics of Urban Areas. Oxford: Pergamon Books

Irazábal, C., (2008). Ordinary places, extraordinary events : citizenship, democracy, and public space in Latin America. 1st ed. London: Routledge.

Jacobs, J., (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books.

Ostrom, E., (2003). ‘How types of goods and property rights jointly affect collective action’, Journal Of Theoretical Politics, 15, 3, p. 239-270.

Rogers, B., (2017). “In Defense of the Street: 10 Principles for Public Spaces,” Making good – shaping places for people, Center for London.

UN-Habitat, (2017). New Urban Agenda English, Habitat III. ISBN: 978-92-1-132731-1. Accessible at: Accessed on 1.02.2018.

World Bank, (2015). Public spaces – not a “nice to have” but a basic need for cities. Kim, S., Online publication. Accessible at: Accessed 10.04.2018

Legislations and Regulations:

City of Bologna, (2014). Bologna Regulation for the care and regeneration of Urban Commons (REGOLAMENTO SULLA COLLABORAZIONE TRA CITTADINI E AMMINISTRAZIONE PER LA CURA E LA RIGENERAZIONE DEI BENI COMUNI URBANI), Bologna.

Câmara Municipal de São Paulo, (2015). Lei Municipal Nº 16.212, de 10.06.2015, Dispõe sobre a Gestão Participativa das praças do município de São Paulo, São Paulo.

Data Sources & Websites

Associaçao de Moradores Jardim Damasceno (Neighborhood Association Jd Damasceno), (2018). Quem somos. Accessible at: Accessed on 12.02.2018

IBGE, (2017), São Paulo: População estimada. Accessible at:  Accessed 12.02.2018

Vila Itororó Canteiro Aberto (2018). About Us. Accessible at: Accessed on 12.02.2018

World Bank, (2017). Urban Population: Brazil. Accessible at: Accessed on 12.02.2018


Agenda Tevere: the coalition working to regenerate the Tiber and its riverbanks

Agenda Tevere: the coalition working to regenerate the Tiber and its riverbanks

Agenda Tevere was born in 2017 thanks to the action of a group of citizens and NGOs determined to improve the situation of the Tiber, the river that flows across Rome (and of its riverbanks).

Their purpose was to follow the example of the “Central Park Conservancy” of New York City. They wanted to replicate what the Conservancy did in NYC, and to apply it in the city of Rome. The Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization, started in the ‘80s a process that has led New York to be the city that we know today (you can read more about the “Central Park effect” here, on the website dedicated to Central Park). In their opinion, imitating this model and reshaping it for the city of Rome, and for its peculiar conditions, could result in numerous benefits and positive changes.


source:                                                source:

The initial coalition could count on a small group of experts in different fields (such as professors of various Roman and Italian universities, architects, journalists and so on) and local NGOs. This number rapidly increased and more NGOs, experts and competences were added to the working group. The merging of different backgrounds and competences brought to the project a broader perspective.

LabGov – LABoratory for the GOVernance of the City as a Commons is among the founding members. LabGov added to the working team its expertise and its competences, acquired through years of experiences and theoretical, empirical and applied research projects, both at a national and international level (many projects could be mentioned, for example: CO-Battipaglia, CO-Bologna or Collabora Toscana)[1].

The LabGov team is composed of Professor Christian Iaione (co-founder of LabGov), expert in urban law and policies, professor Paola Cannavò (member of the scientific committee of LabGov and active in the CO-Roma project), landscape architect, Alessandro Antonelli (member of the board of LabGov and tutor of the non-formal educational platform based on the model of the in-house clinic “EDU@LabGov”, active at LUISS University), Chiara Prevete, lawyer and expert in urban and environmental law (in particular of the instrument of the river contracts). Other NGOs were active in this first phase of the project. Today 23 NGOs are members of the ONLUS (here the complete list).


Agenda Tevere was created following the model of Agenda Comune. This model aims to implement already existent projects and ideas and to create new ones, supporting them in many ways. The key element of the model is the “ecosystem approach” of collaboration. NGOs, public institutions, active citizens and the private sector find fertile ground in this civic ecosystem, in which they are facilitated in realizing their common objectives. This process brought the first group of active citizens to the creation of Agenda Tevere. Claudio Gatti, journalist born in Rome and based in New York, Luigi Zingales, Fabrizio Barca, Salvatore Settis, Tomaso Montanari, Luca Enriques, Cesare Romiti, Milena Gabanelli, and Corrado Formigli are among the first members and represent the driving force of the project.

Four elements are at the basis of the model ideated by Agenda Comune:

  1. A “founding core” of active citizens, who come together for a shared social/civic project;
  2. A supporting network, composed by experts in different fields who are willing to put their time, expertise and resources at disposal of the project;
  3. A strong governance model;
  4. Collaboration with and support to the public institutions.


The model of Agenda Comune and Agenda Tevere was firstly tested in Praiano (Southern Italy) through the creation of Agenda Praiano, a successful story of shared and co-designed innovation and social empowerment. The objective of this pilot project was to turn the city of Praiano into an “open air museum” of the ceramics (here the description of the project).This museum has been created through a crowdfunding campaign. A dedicated app has also been created (Amalfi Coasting APP). For this experience, Roberto Pontecorvo, co-creator with Claudio Gatti of the project of Agenda Praiano, has been selected by the Obama Foundation as one of the 500 most influential social innovators of the world.



Now Agenda Tevere represents a perfect example of the quintuple helix model. In fact, the forces that are supporting the project represent the five actors of this model[2]. Agenda Tevere has the support of many civil society organizations (as above mentioned, today 23 NGOs are members of the Agenda), of the local public authorities (the municipality of Rome and the Lazio Regional authorities have supported the initiatives of the Agenda), of the social innovators that had the idea of creating the Agenda, of various enterprises (such as TIM Foundation, ACEA) and, last but not least, of different Universities (such as Roma Tre, La Sapienza, the faculty of architecture of the Technischen Uuniversitat of Dresden, and LUISS University).


Since its recent foundation Agenda Tevere has already accomplished many goals. In fact, through the campaign conducted by the Agenda in order to increase the awareness regarding the Tiber and its critical conditions, the two institutions involved in the management of the river (the Lazio regional authorities and the municipality of Rome) have strengthened their actions. The municipality of Rome has created a dedicated office, the “Tiber special Office” and the Lazio regional authorities have implemented their intervention of requalification of the river.

Furthermore, the Agenda has started the procedures that will conduct to the creation of a river contract for the Roman urban course of the river. River contracts are innovative methodologies for water management, based on the active participation of local actors. Moreover, the Agenda is working for creating an instrument that will reunite all the information on the state of the river and its riverbanks.

Finally, many projects along the river are starting through its support. Those project (experimental places) are often based on already existing ideas, that did not succeed in the making. Agenda Tevere offers to the associations that are working on these projects its financial support, its expertise (from the crowdfunding campaigns experts and architects, to the marketing experts or the public relation experts) and many other kinds of support.

[1] For more details:

[2] You can read more about the “Quintuple helix” model here: Urban Pamphleteer #5 University College London pp. 29-31

The Scottish Government’s response to the report of the Scottish Expert Advisory Panel on the Collaborative Economy

The Scottish Government’s response to the report of the Scottish Expert Advisory Panel on the Collaborative Economy



The Scottish Expert Advisory Panel conceived in April 2017, has surely contributed to accumulate food for thought around new issues concerning the Collaborative Economy. The Scottish Government issued its response to the Panel’s report in July 2018.

The purposive character of the said Panel was to provide advice and technical expertise to the on-going policy development on the collaborative economy; its programmatic nature instead, envisioned a series of recommendations addressed to the Scottish Government. The latter’s response, published in the July report, seems nevertheless to be perfectly aligned with the Panel’s recommendations and inclinations.

According to the Government, the collaborative economy undeniably constitutes a powerful tool to connect individuals and communities through online platforms and allowing goods and services to be shared without the need for ownership. Its huge potential is said to contribute to a fairer and more socially responsible economy for Scotland, supporting a responsive and agile regulatory environment with a focus on platforms that deliver fair work while contributing to inclusive growth.

The focus on Scotland’s role in the digital economy for instance, has resulted in the coming into being of public-private partnerships projects, such as Digital Tourism Scotland. As a matter of fact, the so-called “visitor economy” contributes significantly to a country’s growth. Major concerns have been devolved to transport infrastructures, cultural heritage and recreational opportunities.

Additionally, the Panel underlined the growing importance of social or collaborative finance, such as crowdfunding. The latter is considered to be an emerging source of finance that involves open calls to the public to finance projects or platforms. Usually, we distinguish between two types of support: reward based crowdfunding and donation based crowdfunding. The benefits of crowdfunding are multiple: its inclusiveness, its flexibility and its scope.

Diverse and new economic models are fundamental for a de facto community-led urban development; the following topic has been explored during the conference Funding the Cooperative City held in Rome during the month of May. Here, local and international speakers discussed and shared their innovative collaborative methodologies, between environmental sustainability, collaborative governance and social economy.

Finally, another point of interest for the Panel is fostering digital collaborative platforms to accelerate the development of businesses and social enterprises, and to develop new strategies to support peer to peer collaborations between social enterprises.

The Scottish Government underlines then the launch of ShareLab Scotland as a pilot innovative and collaborative platform. Progresses have been made in the energy sector where crowdfunding has been employed to support community owned renewable energy.

Similarly, a workshop of the local support group of the Urbact Network Urbinclusion recognized the need to develop new economic models applied to public-private partnerships to foster community welfare, under the flag of three imperatives: regulation, responsibility and governance.

In conclusion, the Scottish Government’s efforts will try to respond to the growing imperatives underlined by the Panel in order to create a fairer and more equal Scotland centered on a sustainable and inclusive economic growth.

Co-City Turin: legal tools for citizen–municipal collaboration created to fight urban poverty

Co-City Turin: legal tools for citizen–municipal collaboration created to fight urban poverty


The City of Turin approved a Regulation for public collaboration on the urban commons in 2016, on the model of the Bologna Regulation with peculiar, context-related adaptation. In 2017, the City of Turin presented a project, admitted to funding within the context of the Urban Innovative Actions (UIA) program. The “Co-City” project builds a policy program for the Co-City starting from the Regulation. The Co-City project builds on both previous experiences of the City with urban regeneration policies, fight against social inclusion, the Neighborhood Houses Network (Ferrero 2012), and on more recent proposals of innovative solutions for governing city commons or implementing a Co-City (Iaione 2016).

In particular, it looks at the transformation of abandoned structures and vacant land in hubs of resident participation, in order to foster the community spirit as well as the creation of social enterprises that will contribute to reduce urban poverty in different areas of the city. The implementation of the Regulation on the urban commons will be driven in Turin by the implementation of “pacts of collaboration” between residents or associations and local authorities, based in most of the cases on taking care of public spaces, or on the reuse of abandoned urban spaces and structures. The creation of new forms of commons-based urban welfare will promote social mixing and the cohesion of the local community, making residents actors of the urban change, while the local authority will act as facilitator of innovation processes already ongoing in the urban context.

The use of innovative ICT platforms, such as the urban social network First Life, developed by the University of Turin, and the active collaboration of the network of the Neighborhood Houses (Case del Quartiere),  will contribute to combine virtual and physical dimensions, involving different types of publics in the center, as well as in the suburbs of the city.

The regeneration of abandoned or underused spaces in different areas of the city will contribute to create new jobs in the social economy sector through the creation of new enterprises, which emerged along the process of residents’ participation initiated and facilitated by the city of Turin, together with the network of the Houses of the Neighborhoods. Moreover, the definition and the implementation of several pacts of collaboration will improve the participation of residents in different parts of the city, fostering the commitment of the citizens towards a more inclusive and cohesive city.

The role of the UIA program

It is through the «Co-City» Urban Innovative Actions (UIA) project that the City managed to invest in the urban commons as a lever for addressing key urban governance issues such as poverty, and target the most vulnerable communities in the city. In Turin, the UIA Co-City project is carried out through a partnership with the Computer Science Department and Law School of the University of Turin, the National Association of Municipalities (ANCI) and the Cascina Roccafranca Foundation as the leader of the Neighborhood Houses Network. It aims at coordinating the efforts of different urban actors in promoting the implementation of the Turin Regulation. The project provides the renewal of real estate and public spaces considered as urban commons, as instrument of social inclusion and poverty reduction in many deprived areas of the City. The project is coordinated by the City Department for Decentralization, Youth and Equal Opportunities.

The Neighborhood Houses is a policy and network that the city of Turin is implementing since 2006 (Ferrero 2012), which promotes the diffusion of community spaces all over the city. It represents a key platform for the project’s implementation. In the Neighborhood Houses Network, city inhabitants will find information on the Co-City project and the different opportunities it offers. There, they will find support for drafting proposals of pacts of collaboration as well as the opportunity to meet other city inhabitants interested in establishing a cooperation to take care or regenerate the same urban commons.

The first steps of the Co-City implementation

The first step of the UIA Co-City project was the public call for proposal of pacts of collaboration. The proposal addressed Turin’s city inhabitants. Launched by the City in June 2017, it was aimed at collecting citizens’ proposals for pacts of collaboration and therefore communicating with target beneficiaries and adopting a participative approach.

The call was a great success in terms of rate of civic participation with 115 proposals submitted. This result shows that the project stimulated civic participation and achieved quantitative success from the standpoint of the civic initiative for taking care of the public space. 54 pacts proposals out of the 115 submitted were admitted to the co-design phase. The majority of the proposals falls under measure C of the call, addressing the care of public space; the 37% of proposals falls under measure B, addressing the regeneration of platforms of public infrastructures; and the 6% for the pacts addressing measure A, peripheries and urban cultures. 54 proposals were admitted to the co-design phase. 1 proposal for measure A, 4 proposals for measure B, 12 proposals for measure B “schools”, and 49 proposals for the measure C were admitted to the co-design phase after the evaluation carried out by the City of Turin. The co-design phase started on the 28th of February and is still ongoing. The call for proposals for measure C is still open, so the number of pacts admitted to the Co-design phase will be constantly growing.

The pacts’ proposals are varied and rich (for a detailed analysis of the Co-City Turin process and the pacts of collaboration in particular, see the Co-City Project Journals). Among others, the Habitat proposal is aimed at intervening on a building in Via le Chiuse, District 4 of the City of Turin. The first floor of the building is occupied by the local health agency’s offices while the second floor is in disuse. The renovation work could change the internal disposition of the rooms, to host the pact’s activities.

The Casa Ozanam community hub proposal is presented by city inhabitants already active in the very same structure, who have previously revitalized it. The new program would allow to expand their offer, setting as its objective the realization of a new neighborhood house in District 5 of the city of Turin.

The proposals are distributed across Turin’s districts, although the peripheries received special attention. The neighborhoods often host former industrial areas that were interested in previous years by urban regeneration policies, or formerly rural areas turned into high-density residential neighborhoods. The typical case is the Falchera neighborhood, in District 6, that was already subject to urban regeneration policies in the nineties. The Falchera neighborhood is composed of two main areas, the Old Falchera built in the fifties and the new Falchera built in the seventies as part of a development project of the “INA-Casa” program, a state-level housing program which resulted in the creation of an isolated residential area for factory workers.

Christian iaione, UIA expert, carried out an analysis of the way the pacts’ proposals address the goal of counteracting urban poverty through an urban co-governance approach, rooted in the transfer of the governance of the commons theory to the city (UIA Co-City Turin Zoom in).  His analysis leads to two observations.

The first observation is that the goal of alleviating urban poverty is pursued through direct and indirect means: direct promotion of social and economic inclusion on the one hand, and urban regeneration on the other hand. The majority of the pacts, in fact, foresees low budget or medium budget interventions for the care of public spaces.  This is creating a key resource, namely social capital, which could be the stepping stone for new forms of non-monetary economies, and therefore strategies to fight urban poverty. Other pacts address urban poverty more directly by creating learning and income opportunities for the proponents (i.e. social cooperatives; NGOs involved in migrant’s integration), as well as offering forms of urban welfare to the neighborhoods inhabitants.

The second observation is related to the innovative legal and economic nature of the partnership created through the pacts of collaboration. A key turning point in this regard is the issue of risk aversion, a complex and priority issue faced by public officials at the urban level. The issue is of a primary importance for the EU, as the recently published Draft action plan of the Urban Partnership for Public procurement shows. The need for risk-takers inside any public administration is an issue that several scholars from law, economics, and policy studies are addressing. Mariana Mazzucato recently proposed to the European Commission a mission-oriented and public value approach to public investments to nurture innovation, which could be fruitfully applied to urban innovation processes like the UIA Co-City project.

The II Edition of URBACT Good Practices Festival – Bari, September 28-29

The II Edition of URBACT Good Practices Festival – Bari, September 28-29

After the success of the first edition, the National Network of Local Authorities (ANCI) is organizing the II Edition of URBACT Good Practices Festivalin Bari, Italy. In an effort to share and learn from the most inspiringurban innovation projects happening in the URBACT cities, the Festival will welcome experts, administrators, mayors, and researchers from all over Europe and Italy.

Providing a platform for the main European programme on sustainable urban development, the URBACT Festival represents a unique brainstorming occasion for public officials and experts in order to reflect on the most pressing issues of Italian cities and local communities.

The event will transform Bari in an open laboratory, with conferences and presentations taking place all over the city, focusing on a wide range of themes, starting from social innovation, quality of life, and governance and protection of common goods, to sustainable tourism, urban regeneration and re-use of public spaces. The work sessions will be organized in diverse venues around the city of Bari, like the Officina degli Esordi and the Teatro Margherita.

Starting from the good practices developed thanks to the URBACT network and financing, the Festival will provide a concrete overview of the actions and the promising prospects for the future of European cities investing in innovation and citizens participation.

From Milan and Lisbon, to Amsterdam and Turin, together with all the Italian cities participating in the URBACT programme, this event will foster new ways of thinking the city, departing from communality, sociability, participation and alternative uses of space.

Inscriptions have opened yesterday and already more than 200 people are participating in the event. For more information and to sign up for free, visit the Eventbrite page of the Festival and choose the sessions in which you want to participate.